Caribbean Food - A Little History

The Arawak, Carib, and Taino Indians were the first inhabitants of the Caribbean islands. These first inhabitants occupied the present day islands of British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Haiti, Trinidad, and Jamaica. Their daily diet consisted of vegetables and fruits such as papaw, yams, guavas, and cassava. The Taino started the process of cooking meat and fish in large clay pots.

The Arawaks are the first people known to make a grate of thin green wood strips on which they slowly cooked meat, allowing it to be enhanced by the flavor of the wood. This grate was called a barbacoa, and the word we know today as barbeque is taken from this early Indian cooking method.


The Carib Indians added more spice to their food with hot pepper sauces, and also added lemon and lime juice to their meat and fish recipes. The Caribs are said to have made the first pepper pot stew. No recipes exist since every time the Indians made the dish, they would always add new ingredients. The Carib had a big impact on early Caribbean history, and the Caribbean sea was named after this tribe.

Then the Caribbean became a crossroads for the world . . .

Once the Europeans brought Africans slaves into the region, the slaves diet consisted mostly of food the slave owners did not want to eat. So the slaves had to be inventive, and they blended their traditional African foods with staples found on the islands. The Africans introduced okra, callaloo, fish cakes, saltfish, ackee, pudding and souse, mangos, and the list goes on.

Most present day Caribbean island locals eat a present diet that is reflective of the main ingredients of original early African dishes, and includes cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, plantains, bananas and corn meal.

African men were hunters in their homeland, and often away from home for long periods of time. They would cook spicy pork over hot coals, and this tradition was refined by the early slaves in Jamaica. The technique is known today as "jerk" cooking , and the secret involves a slow meat cooking process. Jamaica is famous for jerk chicken and pork, and you'll find jerk all over the island.

After slavery was abolished, the Europeans went to India and China for labor, and more cooking styles were introduced. Much of the Indian cooking culture remains alive and well in the Caribbean of today with the introduction of curried meats and curry powder. Indians call it kari podi, and we have come to know this pungent flavor as curry.

The Chinese introduced rice, which is always a staple in home cooked island meals. The Chinese also introduced mustard, and the early Portuguese sailors introduced the popular codfish.

Most visitors to the Caribbean have no idea that the fruit trees and fruits so familiar to the islands were introduced by the early Spanish explorers. The fruit trees and fruits brought from Spain include orange, lime, ginger, plantains, figs, date palms, sugar cane, grapes, tamarinds and coconuts.

Even the Polynesian islands play an important role in Caribbean cooking. Most of us remember the movie "Mutiny on the Bounty", but do not know that particular ship carried breadfruit, which was loaded on board from the islands of Tahiti and Timor. In the movie the crew took over the ship, forced the captain into a small boat to fend on his own, and they threw the breadfruit, which they considered "strange fruit" overboard. Another ship was more successful in bringing breadfruit from Polynesia to Jamaica and the St Vincent and the Grenadines. Breadfruit is a staple diet in the current day Caribbean

America is responsible for introducing beans, corn, squash, potatoes, tomatoes, and chili pepper to the Caribbean. In fact these particular foods had never been seen in Asia, Europe or Africa, so America actually introduced these foods the rest of the world via the Caribbean.

So it's no wonder Caribbean cooking is so rich and creative with the flavors of Africa, India, and China, along with Spanish, Danish, Portuguese, French and British influences. Food served in the Caribbean islands have been influenced by the cultures of the world, but each island adds its own special flavor and cooking technique.

Caribbean Food - A Little History

Linda Thompkins is a Caribbean travel consultant and owner of Travel 2 the Caribbean online agency. Linda and her husband reside in Indianapolis, Indiana and have traveled extensively throughout the Caribbean.

Travel 2 the Caribbean has been in business for seven years and offers secure online booking, and travel agent booking.


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History of the Camera

Early cameras of the 16th and 17th century were able to project images onto paper or glass but the study of capturing, processing and printing the images took many more years. Up until the 17th century, scientists believed that light was composed basically of the 'white' that is perceived by the human eye. It took the research done by famous physicist Isaac Newton to discover that light is actually composed of a spectrum of colors. While he made a big contribution to the study of optics (that is at the core of camera advances) with this discovery, Newton did not actually have anything to do with camera development per se.

The early camera that first became a phenomenon was a little more than a pinhole camera and can be traced back to 1558. It was called the Camera Obscura. The Camera Obscura was seen as a drawing tool for a clearer and realistic portrayal of objects. It was in the early 19th century that an invention named the Camera Lucida was introduced by Cambridge scientist William Hyde Wollaston that consisted of an optical device that could help an artist view a distant scene or person or object on a paper surface that he or she was using to draw. In other words the artist gets to view a superimposed image of a subject on paper and this image could be effectively used to attempt to draw, trace or paint it. Both the Camera Obscura and the Camera Lucida provided an image that was temporary, which could not be lastingly captured on to paper for later reference.


Studies however continued well into the 1800's on how to actually capture the image onto material. It was during this time, around 1822 that French researcher Joseph Nicephore Niepce, created the first photograph by using paper that was coated with a chemical. The image would not stay permanently on the paper and would disappear after a short while. Even so, despite the short-lived nature of the image, the concept of photography was born with this experiment and paved the way for further study and development in this field.

Capturing images to retain them longer and permanently became the next big quest for researchers. Another Frenchman Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre partnered with Joseph Nicéphore Niépce in 1829, to develop the process of creating permanent photographs. Joseph Niépce died in 1833 but Daguerre continued with the work and succeeded in 1837 after many long years of experimentation. The process of capturing photographic images that would not fade away, introduced by Daguerre came to be known as the 'daguerreotype'.

The word 'photography' was coined by scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839 and it is actually is derived from two Greek words 'photos' meaning light and 'graphein' meaning draw.

A slightly more advanced version of the daguerreotype called the Calotype process that makes multiple copies possible using the negative and positive method became available very soon after. In fact, it was during the 1840's that the use of photographic images in advertisements first started and cameras made their mark on the power of visual communication. It was not much later, in the 1850's that photographers first started experimenting with underwater photography of seascapes.

Up until 1850, the process of capturing images was cumbersome requiring upto half an hour of light exposure. The discovery made in 1851 by Frederick Scott Archer was a blessing since the new method termed the Collodion process called for just 2-3 seconds of light exposure to capture an image.

Prior to 1871, photographers went through a development process where they had to coat the plate with wet chemical each and every time and process the image immediately. With the invention the gelatin dry plate silver bromide process by Richard Leach Maddox, negatives did not have to be developed immediately. This was an important discovery since up until then the captured image had to be processed instantly.

Kodak created in 1888 by George Eastman has been a modern day pioneer of sorts in cameras and photography for the masses. George Eastman and the scientists who worked with him at Kodak developed the photographic film in 1889 and made it available in rolls for the mass use of consumers. An important milestone in our entertainment and communication history was the development of transparent roll film by Eastman. This development led to another key invention - the motion picture camera by Thomas Edison's in 1891.

-->Modern Times

During the 20th century the pace of technology development in cameras and photography continued at an accelerated pace much like many other key technology developments. While several key inventions like car, telephone and the gramophone record happened in the later half of the 19th century, it is the last 100 years that saw major developmental work in many areas of communications technology and as well as in other fields - TV, aircrafts, PCs, digital technology, digital cameras, mobile phones, fax machines and the internet, to name a few.

In the case of the camera, the developments simplified the whole process of photography, making it accessible to one and all at affordable prices and the camera industry denizens of our times made it into a mass phenomenon. The first mass use camera became available at the turn of the 20th century and can be traced back to the year 1900. There are hundreds of models of cameras available today both for the amateur as well as the professional and the camera is an important part of any family's repertoire of must have gadgets.

-->20th century chronology in the history of the camera:

1913: 35 mm still-camera created

1927: The flash bulb introduced by General Electric Co. (The concept of camera flash existed much before but was based on the use of a flash light powder that was invented by German researchers)

1935- 1941: Kodak starts marketing Kodachrome film and subsequently launches Kodacolor negative film. Canon released the Hansa Canon in 1936, the first 35mm focal-plane shutter camera.

1948: The concept of the Polaroid camera is introduced in the market. American scientist Edwin Land developed the process for instant photography. Later Polaroid Corporation developed the 'instant color' film around 1963.

1957: Frenchman Jaques Yves Cousteau invented the first waterproof 35mm camera for underwater photography named the Calypso Phot. The actual camera was developed by the Belgian airplane technical designer Jean de Wouters based on the blueprint and suggestions given to him by Cousteau.

1972: The electronic camera that does not require film was created and patented by Texas Instruments. This is however not the same as a digital camera though you don't require film in digital cameras as well. The launch of the digital camera is still many years away.

1975: Kodak's experiments with digital imaging kicked off around the mid seventies but it will take another 20 years before a digital camera for the home consumer market is launched.

1978 - 1980: Asian players like Konica and Sony begin to make their mark. The 'point and shoot' automatic focus camera is launched by Konica while Sony starts talking about the camcorder and demonstrates a prototype.

1981: Sony launches a commercially available electronic still camera. Similar to the 1972 invention by Texas Instruments, the Sony electronic camera came with a mini disc on which images were recorded and stored. The recorded images could be later printed or viewed on a monitor using a reader device.

1985: Digital processing technology makes its entry. Digital imaging and processing is introduced by Pixar.

1986: The camera industry becomes even more consumer focused and taps the fun and travel connotations behind camera usage, with the launch of the concept of the disposable single use cameras. Fuji is credited with the development of this concept.

Also in 1986 - 1987, Kodak started taking giant strides in digital development. Digital means, the photographic image is divided into tiny units of dots or squares known as pixels. Pixels are the programmable units of an image that can be processed by computers. Each image could be made up of millions of pixels. The use of pixels in digital technology allows storing large volumes of pixels to deliver high definition print quality.

1990: Kodak introduces Photo CD's. It is a system of storing photographic images on CD and then viewing them on a computer. With this development the user-friendly approach of the camera industry began to take concrete shape.

1991: Kodak introduces a digital camera targeted at professionals and journalists. Kodak is credited with the invention of a pixel based camera technology known to us as the digital camera. Digital cameras don't use film similar to their predecessor electronic cameras but the storage method is entirely different and the final photograph is of much higher resolution. In a digital camera photos are recorded and stored in digital form. This digital data can be transferred to a computer and processed for printing. Kodak and Canon are well known digital camera manufacturers and there are also several other key brands as well.

1994: The Apple QuickTake camera, a home use digital camera is launched. This is followed by the launch of a clutch of home use digital cameras by Casio, Kodak and others in quick succession during 1995 -'96.

-->The digital era:

The development of digital camera technology is considered to be linked to the development of TV and Video technology. The principles of transmission and recording of audio-visual images using digital electrical impulses finds use in camera imaging as well.

Through the 1990's the developments continued in camera technology, the focus now shifting to the field of digital imaging which is where the future lies. Use-friendly features like software that can download digital images directly from camera onto home computers for storing and sharing on the internet is the new norm in the market place.

The camera, the computer, the software industry and the worldwide web are today irrevocably interlinked to empower the user in experiencing the benefits of camera usage to full potential. The innovation that sparked many an invention in the camera industry found its way into the digital world as well and continued among digital camera manufacturers. During 2001, the Kodak and Microsoft partnership ensured that digital camera manufacturers could use the power of Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) standard through Windows. The digital photo experience is a key visual driver in the Internet era. Many of Kodak digital camera models with EasyShare capabilities are compatible with Windows XP. The Kodak EasyShare software enables users to transfer digital camera pictures directly from camera to their computers and then print the pictures or even email them.

Manufacturers in a related industry like the printing industry have adapted their products to be in sync with the images created by digital cameras. Cell phone manufacturers have tied up with digital camera manufacturers to develop new age camera phones in recent years. These camera phones can capture images and share the images through the cell phone.

Among the 21st century digital developments are the advanced product offerings from digital cameras manufacturers and these are sure to occupy an important place in the ensuing history of camera development. For instance, the Kodak Professional DCS Pro SLR/c is a high-end digital camera and the Kodak website calls the DCS Pro SLR models the most feature-rich digital cameras on the market. It has an image sensor that can handle 13.89 million pixels and this makes it the highest resolution digital camera available. High resolution determines the sharpness or level of detail in photographic images. This is just a glimpse of the capabilities that digital technology places in a user's hands. Digital camera sales figures for 2003 show that the two key players Kodak and Canon have recorded impressive growth.

-->What does the future holds for camera users?

The features offered by digital cameras can be quite mind-boggling for the average user and pretty exciting for most pros. Four key ongoing camera developments that are likely to further improve the process of photography:

1. Greater resolution from even the simplest, low cost camera models

2. Usage in any type of lighting conditions,

3. Compatibility across a range of software, hardware and image types

4. Rich colors and tone

While the higher-end digital evolution continues, the prices of the simple camera have crashed to such an extent that even children and teens are proud owners of uncomplicated cameras. The camera and photography interest starts young and this creates a truly large audience base for the camera industry.

And throughout history, it is evident that the endeavor of researchers and developers has been to make the camera available to a wide section of society. Without camera technology and photography, the other key developments of cinema and TV would have been delayed and what a boring place the world would have been without TV and films!!

History of the Camera

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The History Of Boxing Gloves

Boxing gloves have been around in one form or another almost since the beginning of boxing 3000 years ago. The ancient Greeks used to wrap their hands in leather strips in an attempt to protect their hands. But there was no padding in these early boxing gloves, just leather to protect the boxer's hands. Most people mistakenly assume that boxing gloves have always existed to protect the person being hit. But the bones in your hand are very small and fragile. The padding provided by boxing gloves is as much to protect the person swinging as to protect the person on the other end of the swing.

When the Romans picked up boxing as a sport from the Greeks they unfortunately turned it into a life or death type gladiator event. They continued to use Greek style leather strips as gloves. However, they hardened the leather and attached metal studs and spikes to the strips. As a result, in many ancient Roman boxing matches the loser ended up dead or permanently maimed.


This was too brutal for even the ancient Romans. They made boxing illegal in all Roman cities and provinces in 30 B.C. This distaste for boxing was so great in the Roman Empire that the ban continued in the entire Western civilization for over 1500 years.

When boxing finally reappeared in the late 1600s it was of the bare-knuckled variety. However, because of the more civilized approach taken to boxing it was not long before boxing gloves resurfaced as well. This time, padding was added. Jack Broughton, who was a British boxing champ in the early 1700s, is widely considered to be the inventor of the modern padded boxing gloves. However, these padded leather boxing gloves of the 1600s and 1700s were only used in practice and for informal boxing matches. The major public boxing matches were still bare-knuckle events.

But people were dying in these bare-knuckle matches, so something had to be done. Strangely, however, the boxing rules established in the 1700s and much of the 1800s did not require or even mention the use of boxing gloves. Boxers were very reluctant to give up the purity of bare knuckles fisticuffs. As a result, in many parts of the world boxing was banned in the 1800s and picked up its seedy reputation that continues today.

The beginning of the end for bare-knuckle boxing started in 1866 when John Graham Chambers in London published the now famous Queensbury Rules. Among other things, these rules required the use of padded boxing gloves for all boxing matches. By the beginning of the 20th century the Queensbury rules were used everywhere and bare-knuckles boxing was gone from established boxing events.

The last of the bare-knuckle boxing champions was John L. Sullivan. He lost his championship in 1892 to the first of the Marquise of Queensbury rules champions, "Gentleman Jim" Corbett. Not too surprisingly, the match was held under the Queensbury rules and both combatants wore padded boxing gloves.

Today boxing gloves are defined by weight. The heavier the boxing gloves, the safer they are for both contestants. This is not just because they are padded more. The higher weight means the boxers can't swing as fast as they can with lighter gloves.

The History Of Boxing Gloves

Michael Russell

Your Independent guide to Gloves []

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History Of Gospel Music

Different individuals have various definitions of gospel music. But, for those who believe, this is a way for all to come together as one, honor the times of yore, look ahead to the future, and refurbish our faith. For those who believe, gospel music is a blissful noise for the Lord. It has also been said that gospel music can stir different emotions with its lyrics and tunes; hence, there is an increasing number of gospel music audiences around the world.

But when did gospel music really start? According to some studies, the history of gospel music dates back to the 18th century. This was an era where hymns were usually lined and repeated in a call and response fashion. On the other hand, the spiritual and work songs of the African slaves came along. These slaves were prohibited from many things and were punished for offending their masters. Such situations did not hinder them from worshipping and learning to create their own worship hymns, however.


From 1900 through the 1930s, gospel music was attributed to the social changes in the United States where blacks from the South were moving to other areas of the country with their own gospel music. After this period, noted people who are attributed to gospel music's success came into the picture.

During the 30s, Thomas A. Dorsey was given credit for the crucial development of gospel music. He created songs combining shouts of praise and emotional fervor with his won contemporary style. This was mostly unwelcomed in churches. This era in the history of gospel music was named the Dorsey Era and Thomas Dorsey was named the Father of Contemporary Gospel Music.

During the 1940s, gospel ensembles and quartets sprang to life. These groups traveled all over the U.S., creating a demand for this type of music. On the other hand, the 50s brought the piano and the organ to gospel music. Some performers on this era were The Clara Ward Singers, The Staple Singers of Chicago, and Albertina Walker.

Nowadays, gospel music is still evolving. Many gospel music artists even believe that it is now coming into the mainstream and that they are to introduce gospel music to the mainstream audience.

History Of Gospel Music

Gospel Music [] provides detailed information on Gospel Music, History Of Gospel Music, Southern Gospel Music, Gospel Music Lyrics and more. Gospel Music is affiliated with Download Christian Music.

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History of Farm Tractors

The word tractor comes originally from the Latin verb trahere meaning to pull, which is logical enough. The noun itself was first used with its current meaning in 1901, although prior to this date those traction engines that you can still see at old country fairs were already around. These were developed for agricultural use in about 1850, following on from portable steam engines that, from the beginning of the nineteenth century, had helped drive mechanical farm machinery.

The first gasoline-powered tractor with any practical purpose was built by John Froelich of Clayton County, Iowa in 1892 - but he only sold two of them. In the early 1900s, the Hart-Parr Company, also in Iowa, designed and built a tractor for use on farms to help with plowing, planting, tilling the earth, harrowing and disking. In Britain, there were early designs by Hornsby-Ackroyd in 1897 and a three-wheeled version by Dan Albone in 1902 but the first commercially successful tractor came from Saundersons of Bedford in 1908. In the USA, the Twin City Traction Engine Company brought out a successful gasoline-powered tractor in 1911.


When Henry Ford introduced the first, fully mass-produced tractor, the Fordson, in 1917, it was much smaller and more within the price range of ordinary farmers and so the American market began to really develop. Tractors began to make a significant impact on British farming because of the First World War, when there was a great need to increase food production.

In 1918, the John Deere Company - whose leaping deer trademark has been known for 120 years - bought Waterloo Boy Tractors; part of its journey from being a one-man blacksmith shop in 1837 to the global concern it is nowadays.

By 1923, Fordson - by then being manufactured in Ireland, England and Russia as well as back home in the USA, had 77% of the American market and a good foothold overseas. During the 1920s, tractors which had gasoline powered internal combustion engines were becoming standard everywhere. Cheaper manufacturing methods and design improvements led to tractors becoming essential requirements for farmers and, in the 1930s, when Harry Ferguson devised a hydraulic system for attaching implements to the tractors, the hi-tech, multi-functioning vehicle of today was becoming more of a reality.

Modern tractors are now employed in both field and farmyard operations, carrying, powering and using an enormous range of equipment. It's possible for one man and his tractor to plow in excess of 10 hectares in a single day and it's not unreasonable for a contemporary farmer to anticipate up to 8,000 hours of relatively trouble-free use from his machine.

Modern improvements in tractor technology have included the introduction of turbo chargers, more four-wheel drive tractors, front and rear mounted tools and attachments, vastly improved tire technology, chassis strength and weight distribution as well as significantly more comfortable cabins and seats for drivers.

Space technology has also found its way to tractors in the form of GPS devices. These devices come in handy when used in modern, precision farming techniques. They sure have come a long way in comfort, style and efficiency. Soon it will be "fashionable" to be seen in a tractor. Ok, maybe we're not to that point, but tractors have and will continue to play a big role in agriculture and other industries. There will always be a need for farmers and where you find farmers, you'll find a tractor.

History of Farm Tractors

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The History of Beef Jerky

Jerky was first introduced by the South American (Peru) native tribe called the Quechua (part of the ancient Inca Empire) in 1550. The product (Ch'arki), was boned and defatted meat (deer, elk, or buffalo) cut into slices and rubbed with salt. This meat was rolled up in the animal's hide for 10-12 hours and then sun dried or smoked over fires.

In South America, the Native Americans ate sun-dried venison and buffalo called tassajo, which was made with strips of meat dipped in maize flour, sun and wind dried, and then tightly rolled up into balls. North American Cree Indians mixed berries and suet (fat) with pounded cooked meat and pressed into concentrated small cakes to make pemmican.


Biltong came from pioneering South African forefathers who sun dried meat while traveling across the African subcontinent. Folklore has it that African tribesmen would place strips of venison under the saddles of their horses to tenderize and spice the meat! Seasoning became a blend of vinegar, salt, sugar, coriander and other spices.

The Indians and early settlers dried meat primarily from deer, elk or buffalo using salt, whatever spices they had and sun drying. As the Spanish arrived, the name evolved to charqui. Most travelers preferred to pound the charqui between large stones and boil it in water before eating. During ocean exploration and colonization, the Spanish sailors stocked the pacific islands with goats. What couldn't be eaten would then be cut into strips and hung in their ships to air dry. When the Spanish Conquistadors invaded the Americas, they were surprised to see the natives of North America drying meat as well. Soon, the natives adopted the Spanish term, Charqui, only adding their accent; the word "jerky" first came to be.

North American Pioneers would first dry meat by hanging it on the outside of their covered wagon sun drying (2-3 days). Another method was to build a scaffold over a slow fire and smoke the strips. While the heat and smoke would complete the process in half a day, the smoking method required a stopover; it wasn't long before awareness for disease and germs became prevalent and smoking became the norm.

Today jerky is made from thin strips of virtually any meat or from ground or chopped and formed meat. Manufacturers spice and dehydrate the product; some introduce smoke or using liquid smoke for flavoring.

The History of Beef Jerky

Tommy Stabosz is the owner of Toxic Tommy, gourmet beef jerky products, based in Cleveland, Ohio. Toxic Tommy offers many flavors and varieties of beef jerky, beef smokie sticks, smoked meats, popcorn and candies. Tommy’s passion is to discover the very best family manufactured products and make them available to you for your family and friends to enjoy.

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The History Of Italian Food

While some of the most popular dishes associated with the Italian culture include a tempting slice of pizza and a heaping plate of pasta, there is much more to the world of Italian cooking. Throughout the many regions in Italy, the distinctive cuisine of the Italians shines through in a wide-range of eating habits, styles of cooking, and selection of local ingredients. The changing of the times has also influenced Italian food, as the meals served in the pre-Roman era possess both similarities and differences in the cuisine of today.

The culinary history of Italy established a reputation more than 2,000 years ago, which includes an illustrious movement during the Roman Empire. Culturally, food preparation was quite important in the past where flashes of significance have been captured in the only surviving cookbook (Apicius), which dates back to the first century BC.


The spread of Italian food diversity began after the fall of the Roman Empire when individual city states began to uphold separate identities and traditions. Each region began to display its own unique way of cooking, right down to the formation of a meatball to the characteristic cheeses and wine produced in a locale. The north developed Tuscan beef, while black truffles were very popular in Marches. Provolone and mozzarella cheeses developed in the south, as well as a host of interesting citrus fruits.

Diverse types of bread, variations in pasta, and varying food preparation techniques also differed according to region. The southern regions of Italy embrace hard-boiled spaghetti, while the north often prefers a soft egg noodle. Milan is known for their risotto, while Bologna has a deep history regarding tortellini, and Naples is famous for their pizzas.

Over the years, Italian cuisine has greatly evolved in part because of a wealth of outside influences that have added to its characteristic flavor and appeal. In the beginning, ancient Greek cookery became an integrated part of Italian cuisine. Eventually, a wealth of imports found their way into the kitchens of early Italians, who sent Roman ships to collect a variety of important foods, including wheat, wine, exotic ingredients, and fine spices from around the world. Some ships even traveled to faraway locations, such as China, to bring back edible resources that catapulted the depth and variety of Italian cooking styles.

Coastal regions are known for their developments in delicious fish and seafood dishes. For example, the island of Sardinia supplies a more traditional and simple style of cuisine, which often incorporated delicacies, associated with the sea. Swordfish, lobster, anchovies, sardines, and other Mediterranean treats represent Italian cooking of the area. In Sicily (another island region), a great deal of the cooking drew heavily from North African influences. An Arab influence also affected cuisine on the island and within the rest of the south, especially with the introduction of various spices and sweets, such as the Sicilian ice cream cake called cassata.

As for one of the most popular Italian dishes, while the history books often state that pasta was a product of the Chinese brought back by Venetian merchant, Marco Polo, it was actually a rediscovery of a food item eaten during Etruscan and Roman times. It is believed that the first pasta in Italy was made similar to the noodles of today - from the same durum wheat - which was cooked in ovens instead of boiled in water.

Today, the differences in Italian cooking still show through in the distinctions between the north and the south. Each region still carries their own traditions in cooking that reflects deep history and culture with a never ending supply of main courses, appetizers, and desserts that continuously tempts the taste buds.

The History Of Italian Food

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History of Pulsar Watches

Pulsar Watch, a division of Seiko Watch Corporation, is among the leading watch brands worldwide. These watches are extremely elegant, classy and sparkling. They are wrapped up in contemporary designs by the mean of an eternal appeal. The stunning thick range includes watches for almost all ages of people and their taste. Through the production of modern timepiece watches, it has set up a unique customer category for its brand. By following the same line of parent Seiko, Pulsar persists to innovate, captivate and shine.

In the year 1972, the first Pulsar watch was made public by the Hamilton Watch Company. The expertise and novelty, through which it was created, mesmerized some contemporary press reports to shower a huge amount of praise on it. At that time, it was the first of its kind incorporating digital display and electronic quartz. In the midst of a light emitting diode, it got a new space-age look.


Pulsar watches were a 'colossal beat' and had a great demand in those times. At the time, when the watch boom lessened a bit, since then, the Pulsar brand had got hold of a vast territory and made its lasting impression worldwide. Subsequent to a string of alterations in brand ownership, Pulsar watches were launched in the U.S. in 1979 by Seiko Corporation of America. By means of latest looks and innovative features, this collection was the first full line series of all-quartz, specially designed for men and women.

The move became a huge sensation and brought eminence to the brand. To replicate the accomplishment of the U.S. market, in the 1980s, the Pulsar brand was rolled out in the UK, the Netherlands, France, Germany, Spain and other European markets. This move saw the brand taking sway over worldwide market. The company continued with its expansion strategy so as to gain a wider geographical coverage.

In the mid 1980s, the company added some new range to its existing products and started taking control over the market by bringing in the latest technologies. It enlarged its collection of timepieces and inducted classic sport and dress watches to lure women. Further, in the mid 1990s, it amassed some most extraordinary compilations: Sports, Titanium, Diamond and Pocket. To remain competitive, it added some magnificent features which were unique in nature. The patented integrated circuit technology, which is one of those remarkable features, was handy in providing a quick-start function. It also included a step-motion second hand, which enabled it to report regarding the need of charging the watch.

The LumiBrite dial, an exciting feature, was capable of shining for a long duration with no push of any special button. The newly launched NOS Sport 3502 watch, which symbolizes a synthesis of a graceful retro design of 70's and a modern apparatus of 90s, is a model of hi-tech brilliance among its touch sensitive display points.

Even after more than thirty years, Pulsar now takes a step further in its tradition of technological fineness and exceptional design. From the time of its market entry, it has maintained its cutting edge of approach and expertise. Right throughout in its stupendous journey, the company built nearly each and every Pulsar watch to match the topmost values of quality.

After taking over the U.S. market in the 1980s, by the way of its aggressive marketing strategy, Pulsar is not only a key brand in all the European countries, but it has also made its presence felt in Australia, Canada, Africa and Israel. It offers a broad series of timepieces that not simply look stylish but moreover possess various appealing functions. With a trademark of Seiko Corporation - the world's top notch maker of classic timepieces, one might easily rely on Pulsar's products along with their after sales service program. Pulsar offers one of the best warranty programs in the industry where it not only covers the movement, but the entire watch including the case, the crystal, and the bracelet for a period of 3 years.

History of Pulsar Watches

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Luminox Watch History

Most of the big names in watches are considered elderly by business standards. They are all at least 90 to 150 years old. With that kind of experience behind them, it is understandable why a new watch company may feel intimidated and give up before they even have the chance to get started.

All of that changed in 1989 when two American businessmen made the brave choice to use Swiss watch making technology and a unique illumination system to create a new watch unlike anything the world had seen before. The theory behind this innovative watch design was intended to appeal to the sports enthusiasts. After all, they were constructed to be able to withstand some heavy abuse and provide a watch face that is able to light up. To get the point across about the special and unique ability of this new style of watches, the two businessmen aptly named their new company Luminox.


Since the illumination feature of Luminox watches is what really sets them apart, it may be useful to have a clear picture of how this technology works. Unlike other watches that can light up, the Luminox watches are powered by tiny gas lights called borosilicate glass capsules. These capsules provide constant illumination without the need for solar power or batteries. Among other benefits of this system, the capsules also provide continuous illumination for up to 25 years and are brighter than previously manufactured lit watches. With a Luminox watch there is no need to push a button or do anything special to use the light up factor; it does it automatically regardless of the external conditions. Conventional illumination where some form of luminous paint is used requires charging from a light source for a period of time.

In the beginning, the Luminox Watch Company was having a bit of a struggle to get the notice necessary to really grow as a company. Sure, the extreme sports enthusiasts were catching on, but they still weren't able to reach the consumer market Luminox needed. All of that changed in 1993 with one call from a procurement officer with the U.S. Navy SEALS. By early in 1994, the Luminox company was able to offer the original SEAL Dive Series I. Once again the amazing ability of Swiss engineering, coupled with their unique illumination system set the Luminox Company up for some serious success.

This was the turning point the Luminox Company needed. Due the involvement of the SEALS in the popularity of Luminox watches, the owners began to see a dramatic increase in the number of sales. For the next 5 years, Luminox focused on the sales of their plastic watches. Around 1999, the company made the decision to branch out their watch styles and began to use steel and titanium in addition to the fiberglass models already on the market. Over the last few years Luminox have introduced many new models. And as I write this article, Luminox is introducing the next generation of illumination watch, the Luminox EVO Navy SEAL Colormark series. What is unique with this series is that the markers actually glow in the same color as the numerals on the dial.

The Luminox Watch Company is amazing example of what hard work, dedication, and having a product the U.S. military needs can do. They continue to work with both the Navy and Air Force to provide specialized watches for the special units and pilots. They are also hard at work providing the everyday person with well made, self illuminating watches at affordable prices.

Luminox Watch History

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The History of Bora Bora Island

The history of Bora Bora shows that the island's first settlers back in the 4th century were Tongan people. The first European explorers who visited the island were led by James Cook. However, prior to this island of Bora Bora was already sighted by other explorers. The history of Bora Bora also indicates that in 1842 the island became a colony of France under the leadership of Admiral Abel Aubert Dupetit Thouars.

During World War II, the United States picked Bora Bora Island as a base for military supply, oil depot, air strip and seaplane base. The United States Military also constructed defensive fortifications although no combat took place along the island because the presence of American troops seemed to be accepted.


According to the history of Bora Bora, the United States Military Base closed on June 2, 1946 officially,after the war but many Americans refused to leave the island because it became close to their hearts. Some Americans were even forcibly asked to leave due to complaints of their families from the mainland. This previously used base became French Polynesia's only international airport. But later on Faa'a International Airport was opened in the year 1962 in Papeete, Tahiti.

Today the Island of Bora Bora relies largely on tourism and because of this seven luxurious resorts were built over the past few years. Hotel Bora Bora was the first to build bungalows that stand over the water using stilts. And today, over-the-water bungalows are a given of every resort on the island because these bungalows provide spectacular sites of lagoons and mountains.

Bora Bora Island is popular for snorkeling and especially for scuba diving. Tourists can explore the lagoons and can find different species of sharks and manta rays. The island's foremost attraction is its tranquil lagoon of dazzling clear water that offers different nautical activities like shark and stingray feeding excursion. Also a very interesting activity is the land excursion. In land excursions, tourists can take a ride on 4x4 trucks that climb up the hills to view old World War II cannons that is very much a part of the history of Bora Bora.

The main languages that are spoken by people in Bora Bora Island are French and Tahitian although most inhabitants that inter-act with visitors have good comprehension of the English language. Most tourists that visit the island are Americans, Japanese and Europeans.

The history of Bora Bora is very interesting and what better way to discover and relive it than to visit the villages and explore the island.

The History of Bora Bora Island

Milos Pesic is a professional tourist guide who runs a highly popular and comprehensive Bora Bora web site. For more articles and resources on Bora Bora vacations packages, Bora Bora hotels and cruises, Bora Bora pictures and much more visit his site at:


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History of the Inclinometer

Early inclinometers or clinometers were made up of two basic parts, one of which is a flat side, or base, on which it stands, and the second a hollow disk just half filled with some heavy liquid. The glass face of the disk is surrounded by a graduated scale that marks the angle at which the surface of the liquid stands, with reference to the flat base. The line 0, being parallel to the base, when the liquid stands on that line, the flat side is horizontal; the line 90, being perpendicular to the base, when the liquid stands on that line, the flat side is perpendicular or plumb. Intervening angles are marked, and, with the aid of conversion tables, the instrument indicates the rate of fall per set distance of horizontal measurement, and set distance of the sloping line.

The earliest electronic inclinometers used some form of a weight, an extension, and a potentiometer. Early in the 1900s precision curved glass tubes filled with a damping liquid and a steel ball were introduced to provide accurate visual angle indication. Common sensor technology for electronic tilt sensors includes accelerometers, liquid capacitives, electrolytics, gas bubbles in liquid, and pendula. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems technology is fast becoming the new standard due it's tiny size and low cost. Inclinometers and clinometers generate an artificial horizon and measure angular tilt with respect to this horizon. They are used in cameras, aircraft flight controls, and automobile security systems. The tilt angle range is the range of desired linear output measured in degrees.


The earliest electronic inclinometers used some form of a weight, an extension, and a potentiometer. Early in the 1900s precision curved glass tubes filled with a damping liquid and a steel ball were introduced to provide accurate visual angle indication. Common sensor technology for electronic tilt sensors includes accelerometers, liquid capacitives, electrolytics, gas bubbles in liquid, and pendula. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems technology is fast becoming the new standard due it's tiny size and low cost. Inclinometers and clinometers [] generate an artificial horizon and measure angular tilt with respect to this horizon. They are used in cameras, aircraft flight controls, and automobile security systems. The tilt angle range is the range of desired linear output measured in degrees.

History of the Inclinometer

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The History of Elephants

Elephants are the largest land mammal and can be found in both Asia and Africa. African elephants live in areas that are south of the Sahara Desert while Asian elephants are found in India and other countries in Southeast Asia. Elephants are interesting animals because of the way they travel together and care for their young. They're also interesting to many people living in Asia and Africa because of their size and the way they can contribute to the economy. Learning about elephants can be fun for people of any age, so starting off with the basic facts is the best way to start learning about these huge creatures.

Environment & Nutrition


The natural environment of the elephant depends on the type of elephant. African forest elephants typically roam the forests while African savannah elephants roam open African plains. The Asian elephant also lives in forests. Elephants need a large range of land to roam so that they can find enough food and water to survive. They often follow elephant trails to get from one area to another to look for more food. Elephants eat bark, grasses, twigs, and leaves and they drop seeds in their dung, making them act as gardeners as they go about their travels.

Elephant Adaptations

The elephant has several adaptations that help it survive in its natural habitat. To stay comfortable in the heat, an elephant can flap its ears and create a cooling effect. The large molars in the elephant's mouth are used for chewing and grinding very fibrous plant materials. An elephant's trunk has many uses including picking up food, drinking water, and communicating with other elephants. Elephants also have very low-pitched sounds that allow them to communicate with each other.

Elephants & the Ecosystem

Elephants are a very important part of the ecosystems they inhabit. By dropping seeds with their dung, they are helping to create new plant life. Their large bodies can also knock down small trees and other obstacles so that smaller animals can get through to find food. If there is some kind of water drought, elephants will dig to find water deep beneath the ground surface.

Elephant Family Life

Elephants are very family-centered animals. They travel together under the supervision of a female called a matriarch. The matriarch of a herd has knowledge of food and water sources and is responsible for helping her sisters, cousins, and other family members to stay safe and healthy. When it's time to reproduce, the female elephants mate with bull elephants after a period of courtship. The female stays pregnant for 22 months while her baby elephant grows and develops inside of her. During labor, the pregnant elephant is given help by another female elephant. Once a baby elephant is born, it may drink its mother's milk for up to four years and will be cared for by everyone in its herd.

Elephants & Society

Elephants have had a number of key places in society. Asian elephants have been used as work animals for many years and often haul heavy loads from one place to another. They have been also used as a method of transportation in Asian and African countries. Some elephants are taken out of Asia and Africa to travel with the circus and provide entertainment. Still others are used for their tusks so that ivory products can be made. Other members of society have revered elephants and worked to protect them from harm.

The History of Elephants

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The Evolution of Technology - The History of Computers

While computers are now an important part of the lives of human beings, there was a time where computers did not exist. Knowing the history of computers and how much progression has been made can help you understand just how complicated and innovative the creation of computers really is.

Unlike most devices, the computer is one of the few inventions that does not have one specific inventor. Throughout the development of the computer, many people have added their creations to the list required to make a computer work. Some of the inventions have been different types of computers, and some of them were parts required to allow computers to be developed further.


The Beginning

Perhaps the most significant date in the history of computers is the year 1936. It was in this year that the first "computer" was developed. It was created by Konrad Zuse and dubbed the Z1 Computer. This computer stands as the first as it was the first system to be fully programmable. There were devices prior to this, but none had the computing power that sets it apart from other electronics.

It wasn't until 1942 that any business saw profit and opportunity in computers. This first company was called ABC computers, owned and operated by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. Two years later, the Harvard Mark I computer was developed, furthering the science of computing.

Over the course of the next few years, inventors all over the world began to search more into the study of computers, and how to improve upon them. Those next ten years say the introduction of the transistor, which would become a vital part of the inner workings of the computer, the ENIAC 1 computer, as well as many other types of systems. The ENIAC 1 is perhaps one of the most interesting, as it required 20,000 vacuum tubes to operate. It was a massive machine, and started the revolution to build smaller and faster computers.

The age of computers was forever altered by the introduction of International Business Machines, or IBM, into the computing industry in 1953. This company, over the course of computer history, has been a major player in the development of new systems and servers for public and private use. This introduction brought about the first real signs of competition within computing history, which helped to spur faster and better development of computers. Their first contribution was the IBM 701 EDPM Computer.

A Programming Language Evolves

A year later, the first successful high level programming language was created. This was a programming language not written in 'assembly' or binary, which are considered very low level languages. FORTRAN was written so that more people could begin to program computers easily.

The year 1955, the Bank of America, coupled with Stanford Research Institute and General Electric, saw the creation of the first computers for use in banks. The MICR, or Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, coupled with the actual computer, the ERMA, was a breakthrough for the banking industry. It wasn't until 1959 that the pair of systems were put into use in actual banks.

During 1958, one of the most important breakthroughs in computer history occurred, the creation of the integrated circuit. This device, also known as the chip, is one of the base requirements for modern computer systems. On every motherboard and card within a computer system, are many chips that contain information on what the boards and cards do. Without these chips, the systems as we know them today cannot function.

Gaming, Mice, & the Internet

For many computer users now, games are a vital part of the computing experience. 1962 saw the creation of the first computer game, which was created by Steve Russel and MIT, which was dubbed Spacewar.

The mouse, one of the most basic components of modern computers, was created in 1964 by Douglass Engelbart. It obtained its name from the "tail" leading out of the device.

One of the most important aspects of computers today was invented in 1969. ARPA net was the original Internet, which provided the foundation for the Internet that we know today. This development would result in the evolution of knowledge and business across the entire planet.

It wasn't until 1970 that Intel entered the scene with the first dynamic RAM chip, which resulted in an explosion of computer science innovation.

On the heels of the RAM chip was the first microprocessor, which was also designed by Intel. These two components, in addition to the chip developed in 1958, would number among the core components of modern computers.

A year later, the floppy disk was created, gaining its name from the flexibility of the storage unit. This was the first step in allowing most people to transfer bits of data between unconnected computers.

The first networking card was created in 1973, allowing data transfer between connected computers. This is similar to the Internet, but allows for the computers to connect without use of the Internet.

Household PC's Emerge

The next three years were very important for computers. This is when companies began to develop systems for the average consumer. The Scelbi, Mark-8 Altair, IBM 5100, Apple I and II, TRS-80, and the Commodore Pet computers were the forerunners in this area. While expensive, these machines started the trend for computers within common households.

One of the most major breathroughs in computer software occurred in 1978 with the release of the VisiCalc Spreadsheet program. All development costs were paid for within a two week period of time, which makes this one of the most successful programs in computer history.

1979 was perhaps one of the most important years for the home computer user. This is the year that WordStar, the first word processing program, was released to the public for sale. This drastically altered the usefulness of computers for the everyday user.

The IBM Home computer quickly helped revolutionize the consumer market in 1981, as it was affordable for home owners and standard consumers. 1981 also saw the the mega-giant Microsoft enter the scene with the MS-DOS operating system. This operating system utterly changed computing forever, as it was easy enough for everyone to learn.

The Competition Begins : Apple vs. Microsoft

Computers saw yet another vital change during the year of 1983. The Apple Lisa computer was the first with a graphical user interface, or a GUI. Most modern programs contain a GUI, which allows them to be easy to use and pleasing for the eyes. This marked the beginning of the out dating of most text based only programs.

Beyond this point in computer history, many changes and alterations have occurred, from the Apple-Microsoft wars, to the developing of microcomputers and a variety of computer breakthroughs that have become an accepted part of our daily lives. Without the initial first steps of computer history, none of this would have been possible.

The Evolution of Technology - The History of Computers

About The Author

Rebecca Blain is a professional hobbyist writer who enjoys taking care of her fish and educating people about how to build your own computer which you can learn about here:

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Care Bears History and Facts

The lovable Care Bears were first created by the American Greetings company in the year 1981. They were intended to be used on greeting cards and become very popular to the public. Artist Elena Kucharik was the very first to create the images of our beloved Care Bears and by 1983 they were made into a series of plushy teddy bears popular amongst kids. Later on they were given their own cartoon series that lasted from 1985 to 1988 and then they got three major motion picture cartoon movies called, The Care Bears Movie, Care Bears Movie II: A New Generation, and The Care Bears Adventure in Wonderland.

Each of the Care Bears comes in a different color and they have colorful graphics on their bellies. The Care Bears are able to make magical power beams shoot out from their bellies to help fix a lot of problems. Each of the Care Bears has a different beam that shoots out from their bellies and holds the all of their love and special care. Each Care Bear has a different specialized graphic and a different special care. For example, Bedtime Bear has a sleepy crescent moon on his belly. He is able to send out a beam of special sleepy time care. And Cheer Bear is a happy fellow who can help others feel happier with his beam of cheerful energy.


Even today the Care Bears are popular among the kids. They just love to cuddle with their own special Care Bear. The Care Bears have all kinds of merchandising and entertainment available. You'll find them in cartoons, books, music, classic Care Bear toys, and video games and even in comic books. They still feature the Care Bears on greetings cards too, so you can send a Care Bears card to someone special on their birthday.

Care Bears History and Facts

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History of Discrimination

Discrimination has a long history throughout the world.  Most societies, especially the larger ones, have practiced some form and some degree of discrimination.  In fact, a notable trend (though by no means necessarily an always true law) is that larger societies have had a larger propensity to discriminate.  Why?  Because of their achievements.  Larger societies, to reach the size that they were, had to accomplish.  They built extensive and complicated networks.  Their engineering was on a scale and level enough to support a large society.  Their art was complex.  They had a formal language and writing system.  All of these things were--and are--marvelous achievements But couple with them the fact that for most of human history, people lived only within their societies and had almost no contact with peoples of different societies, and it becomes easy to see why discrimination occurred.  They saw others as foreign and "backward," not having accomplished as much as they did.

From a list of all of the societies that ever existed, it is easy to pick out societies that discriminated.  Spain used to discriminate heavily against the Jews, who were forced either to convert Catholicism or to leave Spain.  The Spanish also created a body--called the Inquisition--to persecute who were not like them.  So, people were persecuted for being Jews.  If someone was thought to be a witch, the she or he was also persecuted.  Likely, homosexuals were also persecuted.


In South Africa, Australia, and the Untied States, the black and indigenous populations have faced heavy persecution.  Jim Crow laws in the United States, intentionally imitated by South African and Australia, persecuted blacks.  Segregation was prevalent in all of these three countries.  Blacks were illegally prevented from voting.  Violence against blacks was common.  In the Untied States, the native American population faced heavy discrimination.  Their families were broken up, the children were forced to go schools that would eradicate their culture, and families were forced to abandon their original ways of life and live on reservations.

Fortunately, the world as a whole is less tolerant of discrimination today than it was in the past.  Most nations have laws barring most, if not all, forms of discrimination (discrimination based on sexual orientation is an exception, though, and still faces a lot discrimination across the world).

One specific barring of discrimination in the U.S. involves employment practices.  Employers are prevented by the law from discriminating against employees or potential employees (during interviews).  If you feel you have been a victim of any sort of work place discrimination, contact the Orange County Employment Discrimination Lawyers of Perry Smith by visiting their website or by calling 888-356-2529.

History of Discrimination

Joseph Devine

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