Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange was one of the most important events in modern world history. The Columbian Exchange was the exchange of plans, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages. When the New World was discovered, the explorers from the Old World unknowingly brought with them many diseases with them. The Amerindians lacked the immunities to the newly introduced diseases.

Death rates among Amerindians increased during the epidemics of the early colonial period. It is estimated that the population in Central Mexico dropped from more than 13 million to about 700,000. The Inca Empire decreased from about 9 million to less than 600,000 and the Mayan population decreased by nearly 75 percent. Also, is estimated that the population of Brazil decreased from 2 1/2 million to less than 1 million. The diseases, viruses, and infections that caused this dramatic decrease in population were smallpox, measles, diphtheria, typhus, influenza, and pulmonary plague.

\"world History\"

The different kingdoms in Europe established colonies throughout North and South America. The English and French established colonies in North America while Spain and Portugal established colonies in South and Latin America. They were all very similar in their hopes and policies of the New World. They each had great hopes for the amount of wealth that would be easily obtainable from the indigenous cultures. They all had mixed policies of diplomacy and violence toward the native people. They also relied heavily on slaves from Africa.

Some differences of the North and South American colonies were the times in which they were settled. The South and Latin American colonies were settled nearly one hundred years before the English and French colonies of North America. The timing was crucial to the outcome of establishing colonies in the New World. Because the Spanish and Portuguese colonies were settled earlier, they were not able to take advantage of the Protestant Reformation that was taking place in Europe. There was significant economic and demographic growth in Europe. This led to private companies being more involved in the development of English colonies.

The Catholic Church had a very important role in the Spanish Colonies. The missionaries were converting thousands of native people to Christianity. But because of the small number of missionaries, they were not able to hold sermons for the native people more than once a year. They tried to train some of the native people to become priests in Mexico. Some of the new priests still practiced old rituals and beliefs. This led the governments to punish them. The Catholic Church sometimes tried to protect them but was mostly unsuccessful. This should not have happened. Christianity should not have ever been forced on the native people. If they wanted to convert then they would have, but it should not have been mandatory and subject to punishment.

Columbian Exchange

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10 Great Places to Visit in Alabama

Alabama, nicknamed "The Heart of Dixie" is known for its heritage as a key southern state. Today the state contains an exciting mixture of old and new. From traditional agricultural events to high-tech rocketry, there's something for everyone.

Some highlights to visit in Alabama include:

\"history Museum\"

1. Ave Maria Grotto (in Cullman): Also known as "Jerusalem in Miniature", and constructed by Brother Joseph Zoetti, a Benedictine monk, the Ave Maria Grotto is a 4 acre park containing 125 miniature reproductions of famous shrines and historical buildings from around the world.

2. Battleship Memorial Park (in Mobile): Home to the battleship USS Alabama, the submarine USS Drum, as well as many tanks and aircraft.

3. Bellingrath Gardens and Home (Southwest of Mobile): A beautiful 65-acre garden estate that offers walking tours, cruises on the Fowl river, and is home to an award-winning rose garden.

4. Birmingham Museum of Art (in North Birmingham): Contains an outstanding collection of over 21,000 works of art.

5. DeSoto Caverns Park (Southeast of Birmingham): offers guided tours through the state's biggest cave which is 12 stories high and larger than a football field. There are also a variety of family attractions in the park outside the caverns.

6. Early Works Museum Complex (in Huntsville): An impressive complex of three history museums including a hands-on history museum for children and a railroad museum.

7. International Motorsports Hall of Fame Museum (in Talladega): This museum, next door to the Talladega Superspeedway records and celebrates the history of motorsports. Exhibits include the Budweiser rocket car which was the first car to break the speed of sound.

8. Noccalulua Falls Park (in Gadsden): A 250-acre public park containing a legendary waterwall, as wall caves, Indian and civil war carvings, a pioneer homesteed, a mini-golf course, a petting zoo, and more.

9. Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail (throughout Alabama): A must for golf-lovers. The Trail is a result of the largest golf course construction project ever attempted. and contains over 400 holes spread across multiple sites around the state.

10. US Space & Rocket Center (in Huntsville): contains the United States' largest collection space memorabilia and rockets including the Pathfinder shuttle simulator and a Saturn V moon rocket.

10 Great Places to Visit in Alabama

You can find out about all these attractions in Alabama, and others in the state too, at:

Or discover all 50 states, 800 towns & cities, and over 1,000 attractions! For more information about travel and vacations in the US, please visit:

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Where To Begin A Free Family Tree Search

Daily, people are searching for answers pertaining to their family roots. There are many factors involved when searching for clues to your family's history. The more information you contain going into these types of searches the better. There are numerous ways to perform a free family tree search.

The following are suggestions to make your task easier in discovering the mysteries of your family roots:

\"history Search\"

A. Talk to relatives

The best place to begin your search of your family's past is closer than you think. Call up or visit relatives and ask them questions about when they were growing up. You will find that most relatives will be more than happy to indulge your curiosity. Speaking to members of your family about their childhoods will prove to be a great bonding experience. You might also find that your relatives were not as straight-laced as you once thought. Remember to take notes while annotating names, dates and locations.

B. Public Libraries

After speaking with your relatives, take your newfound information and go to your local library. Public libraries have huge databases of information to search through, granted you have the time to perform this task. Some libraries have "Genealogy Departments" which prove useful for anyone seeking information about the genealogy of their family. You will find an abundance of information to sort through in your search. If you feel overwhelmed, feel free to ask the librarian for help.

C. Create a detailed family name group sheet

This document is a detailed sheet that lists family members who are parents and their siblings. Remember to include family members who were not parents for they are just as important as the other family members are. You will find this document helpful but tedious. This sheet will quickly grow to numerous sheets outlining the different generations of your past family history. This detailed document offers an easier way in identifying the gaps while leading you in the right direction of listing everyone in your family tree.

D. Search the internet

The Internet provides a wonderful avenue in searching for clues into the genealogy of your family. Websites are in abundance offering free access to Census documents, message boards and genealogy websites. You will find that a huge support group is available at your fingertips with many people performing genealogy as a hobby. These websites share information which proves helpful to someone who is searching for clues to their past.

E. Join Genealogy organizations

These organizations provide research assistance in finding out information about the genealogy of your family. Most of these organizations are free to join and you will find them helpful in your journey. Type in the Google search engine "Genealogy Organizations" for the city you live within and you will easily find numbers to call.

Searching into your past can prove tedious and never-ending. Even with all the time entailed with this project, it will prove to be a memorable experience. You might find a long-lost brother/sister or cousin. The study of genealogy is not an exact science however, with the number of resources available, especially on the internet; there is no reason why you will not be able to perform a free family tree search and yield satisfying results.

Where To Begin A Free Family Tree Search

Margaret Ravenscroft has been a genealogist for over 20 years and has traced her family back to medieval times. If you have found this article helpful, visit Free Family Tree Search to discover more. Click Here for your FREE Minicourse

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Famous People From Spain

Spain is one of those countries that played a huge role in shaping the world's history. It is one of the most powerful nations during the middle Ages, owing largely to the number of explorations and discoveries that its people have made in the New World and beyond. But more than the cultural and religious influences that this country has spread to the world, it has given birth to notable personalities that are widely known in practically every part of the globe. Here are some of the most famous people in Spain from the past to the present.

Juan Sebastian Elcano

\"history Timeline\"

Elcano was an explorer and sailor who is known for being the first man to complete a circumnavigation of the world. He was part of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition to the Philippines. However, after his group was defeated in the Battle of Mactan which also led to Magellan's death, Elcano was forced to retreat, taking what remained of the fleet back to Spain. In the end, only the ship Victoria with only 17 survivors of the 240-man expedition along with 4 Timorese Asians managed to get to Spain, thereby completing a voyage around the world

Miguel de Cervantes

Miguel de Cervantes is another one of the most famous people from Spain. He is well known for creating the literary classic Don Quixote. This novel is considered the most influential literary masterpiece that emerged from the Golden Age of Spain and from its entire literary canon at that. It is one of the foundations of modern Western literature and is one of the greatest works of fiction ever published.

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso is a celebrated painter and sculptor, widely recognized for his 20th century art masterpieces. He is known as one of the founders of the Cubist movement and for a number of styles under this genre that are embodied in this works. A lot of people recognize his works even from afar. Some of his more notable Cubist works include the Les Demoiselles d'Avignon and the Guernica. He became one of the most famous people from Spain as practically every art class in the world has covered at least one or two of his works. Most of today's art genres are based on the styles that he has developed.

Famous people from Spain in the present times

But aside from the hundreds of notable Spanish people in world history, there are the contemporary Spaniards who have made their own mark in the modern times. Singers, artists, and other personalities of Spanish decent have become household names over the years. Who wouldn't recognize the name Antonio Banderas who starred in a number of high-profile Hollywood films? His movies, Interview with the Vampire, the Mask of Zorro and even his character as the voice of Puss in Boots in the Shrek trilogies will forever be remembered by viewers all over the world.

Then there is Enrique Iglesias, singer and songwriter, who to this day holds the record for producing the most number of Spanish-language singles that made their way to the Billboard's Hot Latin Tracks. When it comes to contemporary Latino music, Iglesias is probably one of the most famous people in Spain and the rest of the world.

Famous People From Spain

Craig Edmonds is the owner of which is one of the oldest Marbella portals containing information about leisure, family life and business. Craig has been a resident in Marbella since 1999 and lives here with his family. He runs Marbella Guide as well as several other thriving internet businesses.

On Marbella Guide you can find every kind of information related to Marbella property, news, latest events, relocation information, weather, cinema listings and a whole lot plus more. Also to know about more such Famous People from Spain, Marbellaguide will help you.

Its a complete guide to Marbella so nothing is missing.

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Economic Status of the United States in 1950


Emerging victorious from World War II five years earlier, the United States in 1950 was reaping the benefits of a growing economy - benefits that were actually derived out of the country's participation in the War. The destruction and mayhem brought by the global conflict also brought with it several positive contributions to the economy. Some would even argue that the country's participation in World War II actually saved it from the Great Depression.

\"world History\"

To understand the economic boom of the 1950s it is necessary to appreciate the positive impacts that were borne out of World War II. The foundation for the economic expansion and growth experienced in 1950 and several years after that were laid during World War II.

To fund and support the country's war time efforts, it had to recruit millions of American soldiers to be sent to the war front as well as to be stationed at home. Factories had to be built to produce war materiel - guns and ammunitions, military transport, tanks, fighter planes and bombers, etc. To man the factories women and older people had to be recruited as most of the able-bodied men were at war. WWII created jobs and gave life to many industries and energized a nation. Among the industries that prospered during and immediately after the war were the newspaper industry, the agriculture industry and even Hollywood. Industries that produced transport and plant machineries also prospered. Throughout the War, women, for the first time, were given the opportunity to work outside their homes and participate in nation building. The participation of the women in the labor force started to increase during this time.

The War also provided opportunities that would later be manifested in the 1950s. Take for example many of America's products went overseas - introducing themselves to new markets.

Many had actually feared that the end of the War would lead the country back to depression. With production of military supplies coming to an end, this fear had its basis - for the entire economy was propped up by all that had to do with the global conflict.
Fortunately, this was not the case. The victory relished by the nation brought about confidence in the government and the economy. The common consumer best exhibited this confidence as the strong consumer demand spurred economic growth after the War.

Leading towards the 1950s, industries that experienced a surge in growth included the automobile industry and the housing industry, and new industries experienced fantastic births - industries such as aviation and electronics.

There was also another outcome of WWII that contributed to post War growth - the Cold War between U.S. and the U.S.S.R.

Many of the military industries that sprouted during the war continued to do big business after it. As communist block emerged as a military power in Europe, America had to arm itself against what it considered as a threat. Huge investments were made in the defense of the country. Such investments meant jobs, factories, huge spending - all contributed to the boom of the 1950s.

The economic success of the country probably influenced its leaders to advocate the replication of an open economy at the international level. This is best evidenced by the country's spearheading the establishment of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

Gross Domestic Product and Per Capita GDP

In 1950, the country's GDP was at 3.8 Billion (in current dollars). At that time, Per Capita GDP was ,573.00 - making the United States the number one country world wide in this aspect. By 1996, GDP was at .194 Trillion. Per Capita GDP was at ,800.00 - however, the country ranked only at 10th place world wide in this respect.

Post World War II scenario showed that too few economies survive the war while a great majority, especially in Europe, was greatly affected. Many developments starting in the late 1970s toward the early 2000s enabled other countries to overtake the U.S. in terms of Per Capita GDP.

As Per Capita GDP is influenced by population, countries that had significant economic growth coupled with low birth rate were able to surpass the U.S. in this indicator. However, the U.S. remains the most powerful economy in 2007 taking into consideration other indicators.

Employment and Unemployment

In 1950, the civilian labor force was about 58 million strong. Only 5.3 percent of the labor force was unemployed. 41.6 million of the labor force at that time were males, while only 17.34 million were females. By 1996, the labor force grew to about 142 million while unemployment rate as at 5 percent. 76 million were males while 66 million were females in the labor force. In the 1950s, the number of workers in the services sector caught up with workers in goods production industries. The same time also saw the rise of white-collar jobs and the strengthening of labor unions. Awareness on labor rights was on a rise. The biggest impact experienced by the labor force was the increase in women's participation in employment activities. Accordingly, women have literally poured into the labor force starting in 1950. By 1990, women's participation in the labor force would nearly double. On the other hand, men's participation would drop over time.

Per Capita Personal Income

In 1950 the Per Capita Personal Income was pegged at ,501.00. By 2006 this rose to about ,600.00. Though marked by huge difference in amount, it can be noted that ,501.00 in 1950 could by more goods and services than the ,600 in 2006 as illustrated by the CPI rates for both years.

Consumer Price Index and Inflation

With 1967 as base year, CPI in 1950 was registered at 72.1 - meaning that a basket of goods and services bought in 1950 were 72.1 percent of the price of the same goods and services bought in 1967. By 2006, the CPI was at 603.5. This meant that the same basket of goods and services bought in 1967 would cost 603.5 percent more in 2006. Inflation rate in 1950 was at a steady 1.09 percent. In 2006 the rate was at 3.24 percent.

Emerging Industries

1950 saw the emergence of new industries that were anchored on new technologies. Among these is the aerospace industry. The great success of the heavy bombers during the war emphasized importance on innovation. Improvements in engine design, metallurgy, and arms technology helped advance the industry as well as improve manufacturing procedures.

The onset of the Cold War ensured that the industry was there to stay. At its peak, the industry hired hundreds of thousands of workers in four major factories. The industry was also fueled by a billion government spending.

Other industries that grew during this time were boosted by other industries. Take for instance the housing boom experienced after war. New homes meant additional furniture and appliances as well as new cars. The consumer-led growth likewise spread to other areas. The introduction of television to the masses spurred the growth in electronics.
There were also after effects in the growth of industries. As the demand for homes and cars increased, many Americans were lured out of central cities to the suburbs. The construction of better highways also contributed to these phenomena.
Farmers though were facing tough times. As people left farm lands, lesser people were left behind to do farm work. This led to a drop in the productivity of the farm sector.

Innovations and the Transformation of Business

At a personal level, 1950 saw the introduction of the first hand held T.V. remote control - a device that would be seen as a necessity in many households for years to come. Color TV also emerged through the issuance of a license to CBS Network. Another innovation is the introduction of the first credit card - Diners - also an item that would come across as a necessity in modern times.

The first pagers were also developed in 1950.

In the business front, 1950 would usher in an era marked by consolidation of large companies. Businesses would combine to create bigger, greater businesses. Example, International Telephone and Telegraph bought Sheraton Hotels, Continental Banking, Hartford Fire Insurance, Avis Rent-a-Car, and other companies.

Notable Events and Personalities

Notable events of 1950 included the following:

Start of the Korean War - influenced greatly by the U.S. and USSR at opposite sides, North and South Korea would tangle in a three-year war that highlighted the tension during Cold War regime.

Development of the Hydrogen Bomb - raged by the atomic bomb testing by USSR, the government pursued the development of a hydrogen bomb.

Senator Joseph McCarthy - started the Red Scare in halls of the U.S. Senate - making accusations that the State Department was filled with Communists or their sympathizers. The Senator's actions led to the adoption of the term McCarthyism - describing intense anti-Communists sentiments.

This period coincided with and fueled the onset of the Cold War between America and the USSR. Thousands of Americans were accused of being Communists or sympathizers during this time - Americans in various sectors of the society. History would later judge these accusations as reckless and baseless. While Senator McCarthy gained considerable media mileage at the start of his "campaigns," he would be later unmasked as a grandstanding antic who had little or no evidence to back up his accusations. Many of the people Senator McCarthy accused suffered greatly. Many loss their jobs, had their careers ruined while some were even unjustly imprisoned.


The end of World War II led to the end of the Great Depression and the start of a long period of economic expansion through the 1950s. It is quite ironical that the most destructive war in history would contribute to the emergence of the strongest and biggest economy in the world. The confidence on the economy was obviously brought about by the country's victory in the War. Tempered by strong collaboration between the government, businesses and the consumers, the U.S. emerged from the War a lot stronger and economically strengthened. Industrial expansion during wartime brought economic impetus that would be carried on even after WWII. The fact that most of the major economies were slow to recover from the after effects of the conflict placed the United States at absolute and relative advantage over both its allies and its enemies.

Economic Status of the United States in 1950

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Discovery of Chaga Tea Health Benefits

Why did Russian peasants never have cancer? Trying to save money on tea they drank the chaga infusion instead. They would pick it up from birch trees, ground and then brew it.

Chaga mushroom is considered one of the most popular alternative drinks to prevent cancer and in some cases help to treat it.


How Chaga Tea was Discovered

Sergey N. Maslennikov, a Russian doctor, who is remembered by local people, many years after his death, was born June 21, 1887 in a poor family of the merchant Nikita Maslennikov. Nikita Konstantinovich served as a head manager of the merchant Obrezkova, then became the co-owner of a wine shop. He was kind and gentle, and he loved children. One of his granddaughters recalled that he allowed them to braid his beard in braids when they were small. His wife Elikanida Mikhailovna, unlike her husband, was a stern, practical and down-to -earth woman. She had been saving berries from his large garden for a jam which was sold in the shop.

In 1908 Sergey graduated from the Medical Faculty of Moscow University, then worked in Aleksandrov in Zemstvo hospital. In October , 1910 he married Maria Mikhailovna Sokolova. She was born in St. Petersburg in the family of the librarian of the Tauride Palace. After the death of her parents she lived with her relatives Dobronravov. Elikanida Mikhaylovna believed that orphan, bride Masha Sokolova was not a good match for her son, but he insisted on the marriage. In 1912 they had a daughter, Catherine, in 1913 - Maria.

In 1914-1918, Sergey Maslennikov served in the 197 the Infantry Regiment 6-th Siberian division, in 1916, he worked in a hospital in Nizhniy Novgorod. From 1924 to 1935 he traveled around the country: he worked in the county Tashkazenskom in the Syrdarya province, then - in Sakhalin, in Blagoveshchensk in the Kara-Bugaz. In 1935 he returned to Alexandrov. Since 1941 he served in the hospital, then - as a doctor in Alexander sanitation centers.

Sergey was a man of talent, really hard-working. He compiled many recipes that are still consumed by the residents of the city for treatment of sore throat, colds ... He was also a physician-researcher.

The main achievement of his life - a discovery, as stated in the "description of the invention", "symptomatic tool to facilitate the state of cancer patients".

Solzhenitsyn, one of the "correspondence Patients" of Maslennikov, is telling about this in the novel "Cancer Ward":

"Friends! It's an amazing story. I was told it by one patient who came here for a check, when I was still waiting for admission here. I then, without taking any risk, wrote a postcard with a return address of the hospital. And now came the answer already! Twelve days have passed - and the answer. And the doctor Maslennikov even apologized to me for the delay, because it turned out, he had to respond to an average of ten letters a day. And less than half an hour is not enough for a good letter. So for five hours a day, somebody was writing letters! And he doesn't get anything for that! ... And he doesn't have any staff, assistants, secretaries. All of it - when off duty. And there is no any glory for his work either! For us, the sick patients, the doctor is as a ferryman: we need him for an hour, and then we don't know him. And those he will cure, throw the letters away. At the end of the letter, he complains that patients, especially someone he helped, stop writing him. They don't write about the doses taken and the results. And he also asked me - begged me to reply thoughtfully!

... one former patient told me about Dr. Maslennikov (an old country doctor from Alexander County, near Moscow). He has stayed there for decades - since he came there, treated in the same hospital. And then he noticed that although the medical literature was increasingly writing about cancer, he didn't have cancer patients among the peasants. Why was this? ...

He began to study ... and found this phenomena: that to save money on tea, the men in this whole area do not brew tea, but chaga, also known as a birch mushroom. ... So Sergey N. Maslennikov thought: isn't it that chaga that Russian peasants have been treated with for cancer for centuries, without knowing it?

But obviously, this was not enough. We had to check everything. We had many, many years yet to observe those who drink this homemade tea and those who do not drink. This meant to give this drink to those who have a tumor, and take the responsibility not to treat them by other means. Then guess what temperature to brew, and in what dose, either to boil or not boil, and how many glasses to drink, without harming. Then observe which tumors it affects and which it affects less."

Solzhenitsyn experienced the healing effect of well as thousands of other people. Many of whom Sergey N. saved.

It is worth reading his notebooks with records of the results of his treatments. There are frequent records of full recovery. But for a long time this method of treatment was not recognized. He had to see patients secretly, not at work or home. Only in 1950, after many years of research and observation, Sergey N. applied in the Ministry of Health for his invention. Copyright was obtained in 1958, eight years later.

Like all talented people, Dr. Maslenikov was a versatile man, fond of many things, such as hunting and gardening. He also walked around the whole of Alexandrov with a camera, filming its every corner. Many photos of Sergiev Posad were preserved in the cities of southern Russia.

And recently, in 2001, in the Japanese pharmaceutical company became interested in Dr. Aleksandrov's invention . Following Sergei Nikitich, its representatives came to his museum, and then in Japan they issued a magazine devoted to the doctor Maslennikov and chaga.

This information was provided by the museum of Anastasia and Marina Tsvetaeva.

Discovery of Chaga Tea Health Benefits

Yulia Morris is an entrepreneur who was born in Russia and lives in UK since 2008. She runs a family business that is producing herbal tea. To get more information on Chaga Tea and buy it online visit

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