History of Softball

The game of softball has an interesting history. America has always been the most innovative and inventive nations of the world when it comes to sports. Softball is one of the finest innovations in the history of American sports. Softball is another close relative of the popular sport baseball, but with slight and significant alterations. It is very interesting to note that though softball has never gained much popularity worldwide, it has its genesis right in the nineteenth century. The very first version of softball was invented in Chicago in the year 1887 by a reporter from the Chicago Board of Trade. His name was George Hancock, and he tried to innovate a winter version of baseball.

Farragut Boat Club was the first venue where the newly evolved game of what was then known as 'indoor baseball' was first played. There are many humorous incidents which have proven to be one of the most important developments of the game. Instead of a specialized glove for the game, a boxing glove was tied to the ball. Instead of a specialized bat, a broom handle was used to hit the ball.


IN 1895 came the first time softball was played as an outdoor game, in Minneapolis. Firefighters played it for exercise. The game of softball at that time was known as kitten ball. After years of development in the game, the first ever softball league outside the United States was organized in Toronto, Canada, in 1897. Softball's name had itself undergone a series of changes since 1926. Some of the names include indoor baseball, kitten ball, diamond ball, mush ball, and pumpkin ball. Standard and international rules were first agreed upon only after the formation of the Amateur Softball Association in 1933.

History of Softball

Softball provides detailed information on Softballs, Fastpitch Softball, Softball Equipment, History Of Softball and more. Softball is affiliated with Miken Softball Bats [http://www.e-SoftballBats.com].

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History of Track and Field

The history of track and field event was started way back in 776 BC. The first foot race was held at the first Olympic festival in ancient Greece. The walking, running, and throwing things is a natural process in man from his birth. This process gave birth to track and field events. Many individuals started to compete with each other and the events became more popular as the days progressed. The events began to develop and many new track events were included in the process. Well, let us have a look at the history of track and field event.

The ancient track event included the stade race, which is called sprint in modern event. The contestants ran from one end of the track to the other. The distance covered was roughly 200 meters, which later gave birth to 200-meter sprint. The 400-meter sprint was inspired from two stade races and the long distance run was the result of 724 stade races. The ancient field events such as long jump, javelin, short put, etc had a similar look as in modern days. The history of track and field in modern Olympics started in 1896.


Now, let us look at the history of track and field event such as jumping and pole vault. The jumping events came from the past and the pole vault was developed in Netherlands where people used poles to jump over natural hurdles such as canals, streams, and marshlands. The jumping events such as long jump, high jump, triple jump, and pole vault were all included in first modern Olympics in 1896. The women participants had to wait until 1928 and women's high jump was first introduced in 1928 Olympics and soon followed by long jump in 1948. The triple jump for women was introduced in 1996 and pole vault in the next Olympics in 2000.

In the past, the pentathlon included the five major events while the modern Olympics in 1912 included the decathlon, which is supposed to consist of 10 track and field events. The pentathlon for women was included in 1964 and was again replaced by heptathlon (7 track and field event). The marathon event has its own history in Olympics. The marathon was inspired from a legend that ran 26 miles from the plains of Marathon to Athens in 490 BC. The first official Marathon in the history of track and field event was introduced in 1896 Olympics. The 5000 and 10,000 meter was added in 1912 and 3000 steeplechase meter was added in 1920. The 800 meter was the minimum distance for women in 1928 and the maximum 5000 meter was added in 1996 Olympics.

The history of track and field mainly revolves around the Olympic Games. Also, there are many international events such as Common Wealth Games, Asian Games, etc that includes the different track and field events. The track and field events in the United States are reported to be started way back in 1860. As the time progressed, many new events were added and the formation of IAAF in 1913 created history in track and field events. Soon, the women were allowed to participate in the track events. It was only after 1913 track and field events were treated as a professional sport.

History of Track and Field

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The History of Labor Unions

A labor union, or trade union, is an organization of workers who have joined together to achieve goals in areas such as wages and working conditions. The union negotiates contracts and conditions with employers, keeping employee satisfaction high and protecting workers from unsafe or unfair working conditions. Most unions claim a right to exclusivity and reserve the right to admit or deny membership to potential union members based on factors such as worker status and their type of trade or skill.

Union history traces back to the guild system in Europe that sought to protect certain professions by controlling of skill mastery and advancement. Although the relationship between guilds and unions is not perfectly linear, and is therefore sometimes disputed, guilds as the forerunners of unions makes sense - it is the first example of workers organizing according to their own rules rather than those of their employer.


The industrial revolution during the eighteenth century in Europe prompted a new surge of new workers to enter the job market that had previously remained at home and now needed representation. In the United States, early workers and trade unions played an important part in the role for independence. Although their physical efforts for the cause of independence were ineffective, the ideas they introduced, such as protection for workers, stuck in American culture.

Trade unions really exploded in the United States during the nineteenth century with the founding of the first national union, the National Labor Union. It was created in 1866 and was not exclusive to any particular kind of worker. Although this union crumbled and made no significant gains for workers' rights, its founding was an important precedent. Next, the Knights of Labor was founded in 1869. Their membership peaked around 700,000 members, with some of their key issues being child labor opposition and demands for an eight-hour day. The most famous American union was probably the American Federation of Labor (AFL), founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers. At its pinnacle, the union had about 1.4 million members. The AFL's working principle was "pure and simple" unionism, which sought immediate work environment improvements such as wage increases and enhanced safety within the workplace.

Today, unions still serve the same purposes for which they were originally founded. Current union agendas include ending child labor, increasing wages, raising the standard of living for the working class, and providing more benefits to both workers and their families. If you are interested in learning more, information about modern unions can help.

The History of Labor Unions

Joseph Devine

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Anchor Bar in Buffalo New York

Hey all you NFL fans. You know who you are! Next time you follow your favorite team to Buffalo NY head straight to the Anchor Bar. The Anchor Bar, located at 1047 Main St. in Buffalo NY, is noted as the original home of the Chicken Wing. Remember that this restaurant can be very crowded for both lunch and dinner. You could find yourself waiting for as much as an hour but the bar is always open to serve you while you wait. It will be well worth your time. As you look around the room you will notice wall decor of collectibles that cover every inch. Some are enlarged magazine covers, some framed letters from famous or well known personalities, and pictures of local celebrities like the late Tim Russert. Buffalo has a rich history and the Anchor Bar displays this history as well as being a part of it.

Now once you're seated it is time to go ahead and order the best wings in the world. You can order them any way you like but I prefer the mild and hot wings. I like to be able to savor the sweet flavor of the sauce. That plus a dip into the blue cheese dressing is a taste delight you can never forget. I believe the suicide sauce is great, but just a little too hot to allow anyone to fully experience the delicious flavor of the special secret sauce. Try 20 or even 40 of these Buffalo wings with a beer of your beverage of choice and you will be in chicken wing paradise.


On Friday and Saturday you will experience a double treat. Along with the amazing wings and drinks you will be treated to the best jazz and blues anywhere. The place is not for the calm of spirit, so if you are looking for a place where you can just sit and talk, you may want to avoid the times that they are playing.

Anchor Bar in Buffalo New York

You can check for times and business hours by calling ahead any day at 716 886- 8920. This is the best place to enjoy the perfect blend of spicy Buffalo wings and music. I will be looking for you from the bar. Enjoy! Anchor Bar

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Housebreaking is an Absolute

Every dog is trained to his owner's level of comfort. If it doesn't bother you that Fido likes to watch television sitting next to you on the couch, you're not going to make an issue of keeping him off the furniture. If it makes you crazy when Spot barks at the vacuum cleaner, you'll be more willing to put in the effort to teach her not to.

One absolute for us is that dogs must be housebroken. It's not the most pleasant topic of conversation, but it's essential to us. We even teach them to urinate and defecate on command. It takes work, patience and absolute consistency, but any healthy dog can be taught to keep her house clean and be a welcome guest wherever she travels.


Puppies under six months old should not be expected to be "good" all day while you're at work, the kids are at school and no one's there. If someone can't get home at mid-day to take the puppy out, exercise it and give it some lunch, it may not be the right time for a dog.

Years ago, before crate training became the norm in housebreaking, most dogs were "paper-trained" as puppies. I don't really advise it unless you intend to make it the last stop in dog training. It's hard to transition a dog from the paper to outside.

Small dog owners may like the option of a permanent, indoor toilet area for their dogs, a "litter box" for dogs. It solves the issues of walking the dog in inclement weather, keeping the dog warm in winter and works well for many apartment dwellers without immediate access to the outdoors. Since small dogs seem to need to eliminate more often, continuous access to a litter box may be ideal for some small dog owners.

Wherever you decide you want your dog to "do its business," take it there at regular intervals, give it whatever command you choose to use for the behavior and be patient. I even recommend carrying the dog to the toilet area first thing in the morning, or any time you know it really has to go.

When your dog produces the behavior you want - don't forget the praise. Let your dog know you're happy with her. And when your dog does "mess up," remember it's your fault. It's always your fault. You weren't paying attention, you didn't see the signs, you didn't get the dog outside in time.

If you catch FiFi in the act, make a loud noise to distract it (I tend to scream "No," or drop a heavy book on the floor) and hustle the dog outside. If the dog finishes its business outside, praise him to the skies; "What a wonderful, clever puppy you are!" Ideally, someone else will have cleaned up while you're outside. If not, don't let the pup watch you do it.

There is no punishment for messing in the house. If you don't catch the dog in the act, it's your fault. Just clean up and forget about it. If you take a page from prehistory and "rub his nose in it," your dog will learn that it's bad for him if you find messes. So he'll hide them. Dogs don't have a "cause and effect" memory.

A friend of mine has heard my housebreaking lecture many times and after four years his Dachshund Charlie still urinates in his dining room. Why? My friend won't commit to paying attention to his dog, and won't put in the effort needed. He thinks Charlie "knows" he's bad, because Charlie runs the other way when Sam goes into the dining room. Charlie knows he gets in trouble when Sam goes into the dining room. Charlie has no idea that dried puddle is the source of Sam's anger, and certainly has no memory of producing it. Don't be like Sam. It's easier to teach the behavior you want than fix mistakes later.

Housebreaking is an Absolute

Hope Saidel is the co-owner of GollyGear, a bricks-and-mortar and online small dog shop featuring fun, affordable and practical products for small dogs. She has trained and competed in Obedience with small dogs for over a decade and is on the Board of Directors of the North Shore Dog Training Club. Check out her blog: GollyLog.

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