The Discovery of Zinc

Zinc ores had been used to make brass long before it was proven to be a distinct element. The earliest brass was found in Palestine between 1400-1000 B. C. However nobody was aware of the origin of the brass; it could be made by humans or borne naturally on Earth. An alloy with 87% of zinc content was found during the prehistoric period in Transylvania. Smelted zinc ores with copper was seemed to be discovered in Cyprus and later being used by the Romans. Then India made the production of metallic zinc by reducing calamine, the zinc carbonate using organic substances such as the wool. These discoveries were made around the 500 B. C. However among those who discovered zinc, nobody was officially named the founder.

Yet later on, zinc element was neither used nor further recognized due to the fact that zinc boils away or easily vaporizes when it is heated. As many did not understand that zinc sublimates easily, all their attempts to extract zinc from its compound often resulted in zinc evaporating into the air. It was rumored that Asians were the one who discovered zinc before the Europeans. Ancient writings from India and China had referred to zinc products. These products were exported Asia to Europe before they were processed in Europe.


The Indians had invented the process to extract zinc element from its ores during the 13th century. The process is to heat zinc ores in a closed container. When the zinc sublimates into vapor form, it condenses in the container. Then it can be scraped off to be used. The method was later on passed to China and Europe.

The Discovery of Zinc

A Swiss physician Paracelsus was probably the first European man to make reflections on the zinc element. His real name was Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim. Not long after he was borne, he used the name Paracelsus which meant greater than Celsus and Celsus was one great Roman physicians. He wanted everyone to know that he was simply greater than Celsus.

He was also an alchemist. The field of alchemy was a pre-science existed in between the 500 B. C. and the end of 16th century. Those who studied alchemy were name alchemists and they were searching for ways to change iron, lead and other metals into gold. Paracelsus made his initial writing about zinc during early 1500s. He wrote about some properties of zinc yet made clarifications that he did not the resources of the metal. Due to his writings and reports about the zinc, at times he was named the man who discovered zinc. The word zinc came from "zink", a German name. The origin of the meaning of zinc was unidentified although it was known that the word was first used in 1651.

The Discovery of Zinc

Stuart is writing for many websites, He enjoys writing on wide range of topics such as who discovered zinc and who discovered lead. You may visit for more details.

Self Discovery Through Journal Writing

Keeping a journal isn't just for teenage girls. The benefits of writing in a journal on a daily basis are various and great. You can get true insights into hidden parts of yourself, look back and notice patterns or habits, and receive wonderful therapeutic benefits. It's a wonderful way to release anger, or other emotions that you need an outlet for. Let's take a look at some information about self discovery through journal writing.

What is Journal Writing?


Journal writing is when an individual keeps a log of his daily or weekly activities, thoughts, feelings, emotions, and dreams. This can be done in a fancy leather bound journal, or an ordinary spiral notebook. The result is the same whether you use expensive writing tools or cheap pens and a notebook. You don't have to write everyday, although it is an excellent thing to do. You could write every few days or every week.

Self Discovery Through Journal Writing

You simply write as if you were unloading your troubles or thoughts to your best friend, except you have the added benefit of your journal not being able to squeal to anyone you write about! Need to blow off some steam about your boss? Is your spouse driving you up the wall and back again? Get those feelings out, without compromising wonderful relationships. Writing about your problems is therapeutic, and can become one of the highlights of your day.

How Journal Writing can help with Self Discovery.

Writing in your journal will help you express wonderful emotions of happiness, love, fulfillment, and peace. It can also help you to shed your feelings of anger, hate, depression, anxiety or stress. It's a great way to let go of things that are bugging you, or driving you nuts! After writing for a while, you will begin to notice patterns within yourself.

You can track the things that make you feel a certain way. For example, reading your journal, you've noticed that you usually become really upset and depressed around a certain time each year. Further reading has helped you to realize that you get upset and depressed around the anniversary of your job. Why are you becoming upset around this time? Are you subconsciously thinking, 'Another year in the same dead end job." Do you have unresolved issues about your job, or are you unhappy in your job?

Another example could be that on some days you seem to be absolutely elated for no reason. Reading further, you realize that you're always happy and ecstatic the day you've seen a certain 'someone.' Uh oh. What's going on there? Writing in your journal can truly help you discover things about yourself that you never would have known otherwise.

What Process Should One Use?

Simply write about your most prevalent feelings in a day, what your thoughts were, any important events, things that you thought were interesting. Just write what you feel is relevant or that deserves to be noted. You are your own guide, and it doesn't matter what you write, because no one else is reading it. Most importantly, try to write at a certain time, like once every day or at least once a week. This will help you discover things about yourself more easily.

The Benefits one can Experience.

There are so many great benefits of journal writing. You can really use writing as an outlet to let go of anger, depression and anxiety. Don't let anger build up inside of you until you blow up and create a potentially terrible situation. Write about it. You can let go of stress about certain things, and we all know how damaging stress can be. Use journal writing to discover things about yourself that you never knew. You can learn so many things from writing in a journal. The benefits are wonderful, and there's really no reason not to do it.

You can write in a journal even if you're not gifted as a writer. You don't have to make the words pretty or descriptive, because you will automatically feel the feelings associated with the writing. No one else will be reading it, so you don't have to write a certain way, just write what you want. Good Luck!

Self Discovery Through Journal Writing

Are YOU Ready to Seize Control of Your Life and Progress to Success? It's time for you to live up to your full potential. But the only way that can happen is if you take the first step, and download your free report Personal Development Power Tips so you can discover the top tips for your personal growth.

Discovery of Chaga Tea Health Benefits

Why did Russian peasants never have cancer? Trying to save money on tea they drank the chaga infusion instead. They would pick it up from birch trees, ground and then brew it.

Chaga mushroom is considered one of the most popular alternative drinks to prevent cancer and in some cases help to treat it.


How Chaga Tea was Discovered

Discovery of Chaga Tea Health Benefits

Sergey N. Maslennikov, a Russian doctor, who is remembered by local people, many years after his death, was born June 21, 1887 in a poor family of the merchant Nikita Maslennikov. Nikita Konstantinovich served as a head manager of the merchant Obrezkova, then became the co-owner of a wine shop. He was kind and gentle, and he loved children. One of his granddaughters recalled that he allowed them to braid his beard in braids when they were small. His wife Elikanida Mikhailovna, unlike her husband, was a stern, practical and down-to -earth woman. She had been saving berries from his large garden for a jam which was sold in the shop.

In 1908 Sergey graduated from the Medical Faculty of Moscow University, then worked in Aleksandrov in Zemstvo hospital. In October , 1910 he married Maria Mikhailovna Sokolova. She was born in St. Petersburg in the family of the librarian of the Tauride Palace. After the death of her parents she lived with her relatives Dobronravov. Elikanida Mikhaylovna believed that orphan, bride Masha Sokolova was not a good match for her son, but he insisted on the marriage. In 1912 they had a daughter, Catherine, in 1913 - Maria.

In 1914-1918, Sergey Maslennikov served in the 197 the Infantry Regiment 6-th Siberian division, in 1916, he worked in a hospital in Nizhniy Novgorod. From 1924 to 1935 he traveled around the country: he worked in the county Tashkazenskom in the Syrdarya province, then - in Sakhalin, in Blagoveshchensk in the Kara-Bugaz. In 1935 he returned to Alexandrov. Since 1941 he served in the hospital, then - as a doctor in Alexander sanitation centers.

Sergey was a man of talent, really hard-working. He compiled many recipes that are still consumed by the residents of the city for treatment of sore throat, colds ... He was also a physician-researcher.

The main achievement of his life - a discovery, as stated in the "description of the invention", "symptomatic tool to facilitate the state of cancer patients".

Solzhenitsyn, one of the "correspondence Patients" of Maslennikov, is telling about this in the novel "Cancer Ward":

"Friends! It's an amazing story. I was told it by one patient who came here for a check, when I was still waiting for admission here. I then, without taking any risk, wrote a postcard with a return address of the hospital. And now came the answer already! Twelve days have passed - and the answer. And the doctor Maslennikov even apologized to me for the delay, because it turned out, he had to respond to an average of ten letters a day. And less than half an hour is not enough for a good letter. So for five hours a day, somebody was writing letters! And he doesn't get anything for that! ... And he doesn't have any staff, assistants, secretaries. All of it - when off duty. And there is no any glory for his work either! For us, the sick patients, the doctor is as a ferryman: we need him for an hour, and then we don't know him. And those he will cure, throw the letters away. At the end of the letter, he complains that patients, especially someone he helped, stop writing him. They don't write about the doses taken and the results. And he also asked me - begged me to reply thoughtfully!

... one former patient told me about Dr. Maslennikov (an old country doctor from Alexander County, near Moscow). He has stayed there for decades - since he came there, treated in the same hospital. And then he noticed that although the medical literature was increasingly writing about cancer, he didn't have cancer patients among the peasants. Why was this? ...

He began to study ... and found this phenomena: that to save money on tea, the men in this whole area do not brew tea, but chaga, also known as a birch mushroom. ... So Sergey N. Maslennikov thought: isn't it that chaga that Russian peasants have been treated with for cancer for centuries, without knowing it?

But obviously, this was not enough. We had to check everything. We had many, many years yet to observe those who drink this homemade tea and those who do not drink. This meant to give this drink to those who have a tumor, and take the responsibility not to treat them by other means. Then guess what temperature to brew, and in what dose, either to boil or not boil, and how many glasses to drink, without harming. Then observe which tumors it affects and which it affects less."

Solzhenitsyn experienced the healing effect of well as thousands of other people. Many of whom Sergey N. saved.

It is worth reading his notebooks with records of the results of his treatments. There are frequent records of full recovery. But for a long time this method of treatment was not recognized. He had to see patients secretly, not at work or home. Only in 1950, after many years of research and observation, Sergey N. applied in the Ministry of Health for his invention. Copyright was obtained in 1958, eight years later.

Like all talented people, Dr. Maslenikov was a versatile man, fond of many things, such as hunting and gardening. He also walked around the whole of Alexandrov with a camera, filming its every corner. Many photos of Sergiev Posad were preserved in the cities of southern Russia.

And recently, in 2001, in the Japanese pharmaceutical company became interested in Dr. Aleksandrov's invention . Following Sergei Nikitich, its representatives came to his museum, and then in Japan they issued a magazine devoted to the doctor Maslennikov and chaga.

This information was provided by the museum of Anastasia and Marina Tsvetaeva.

Discovery of Chaga Tea Health Benefits

Yulia Morris is an entrepreneur who was born in Russia and lives in UK since 2008. She runs a family business that is producing herbal tea. To get more information on Chaga Tea and buy it online visit

Using Castor Oil for Acne - A Natural Skin Care Discovery

Can using castor oil for acne treating skin care products really clear up your skin? Believe it or not, the answer is absolutely yes! This natural oil has wonderful moisturizing and healing properties that few can match.

OK, so you understand the healing properties part, but why exactly would keeping your skin moisturized help your acne? After all, doesn't moisture clog pores and cause immediate break outs in the first place? In reality this is a very common fallacy that many have wrongfully accepted... including me at one time.


For years I tried everything in my power to keep my skin as dry as possible only to find that my condition became worse and worse. Not only did my acne break outs increase, but I had red, scaly and chronically dry skin. Only after I stopped this practice and started moisturizing regularly in a healthy way did I start to see improvements.

Using Castor Oil for Acne - A Natural Skin Care Discovery

Now don't run out to your local drug store and pick up the first moisturizer that you see! Store bought lotions and moisturizing soaps usually incorporate synthetic elements and harmful carcinogens in order to decrease costs and increase shelf life. Unfortunately, in the cosmetic industry ingredients don't need to be disclosed to the consumer. In other words... you have no clue what you're putting on your skin!

So how do you moisturize in a "healthy way"? Simple... By using homemade all natural soaps. You can either make soap yourself, or you can buy handcrafted soaps from a reputable company that is most concerned with producing a quality product and not passing last quarter's sales goal. The important part is that you steer clear of "fake" ingredients and go 100% all natural.

There are a ton of different oils and fats that can be used to make soap, but I believe that castor oil for acne treating soaps is definitely the best because of its ability to moisturize and quickly heal the skin.

In order to make soap out of castor oil you will need to mix it with lye (sodium hydroxide) in order to create a chemical reaction called saponification. During saponification, the oil (acid) reacts with the lye (base) to form a salt (your soap). I bet you never knew that soap was actually a salt!

Never use just castor oil in a soap making recipe as it will produce a soft bar that will become rancid prematurely. I recommend combing the castor oil with a percentage of avocado oil, coconut oil and palm oil to produce an amazing finished product that will withstand the test of time.

Give homemade soaps a try. I don't think you will ever regret it! Getting rid of the "fake stuff" and using only natural ingredients on your skin could be the missing link in your skin care regimen that will make all the difference in the world.

Using Castor Oil for Acne - A Natural Skin Care Discovery

To learn more about using castor oil for acne visit Steve's site Here you will find detailed soap making tutorials along with skin care ingredient profiles and other helpful information.

Chemistry - 7 Important Events That Led to the Discovery of Quantum Mechanics

Quantum Mechanics is a purely mathematical description of the atom and the subatomic particles. But, that doesn't mean you have to be a nuclear physicist to understand how the atom is arranged or its importance. You can develop an appreciation and a basic understanding of the quantum atom by learning the major events that led to the discovery of the quantum atom.

#1 Discovery of the Electron


In 1898 J.J. Thomson proved the existence of the electron and changed our perception of matter forever. Although others (George Stoney) had predicted there were particles smaller than the atom, they were unable to prove it. J.J. Thomson not only proved the existence of a subatomic particle; he suggested a new atomic model, the "Plum Pudding Model".

Chemistry - 7 Important Events That Led to the Discovery of Quantum Mechanics

#2 Discovery of the Nucleus and Proton

The discovery of the electron led others to test ideas that there might be other subatomic particles. One such person, a former student of J.J. Thomson's, was Ernest Rutherford. Rutherford assigned two assistants, Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden, to perform the now famous "Gold-foil Experiment". The result of this experiment led Rutherford to conclude that the atom must be mostly space with the majority of its mass located in a very small, dense, centrally located region of the atom. Rutherford named this dense, positively charged region the nucleus later determined that the positive charge was due to another subatomic particle he named the proton.

#3 The Elements' Spectra

An earlier discovery, by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff, that was very important to the development of the Quantum Theory was the discovery of elemental spectra. It was discovered that each element had its own unique emission spectrum that could be used like a fingerprint to identify the element. Later, the quantum theory would provide the explanation for the spectral lines.

#4 The Quantum Theory

Max Planck developed an idea from the observation of black-body radiation that was originally based on a guess that electromagnetic energy could only be emitted in quantized amounts. In other words, the energy could only be used in whole number packets Planck called quanta. This idea became known has "Planck's Postulate" and eventually gave birth to quantum mechanics.

#5 The Photoelectric Effect

In 1905, Albert Einstein published four scientific papers that were to become his greatest works. One of these papers was his explanation of the photoelectric effect. The photoelectric effect is a phenomenon observed when electrons are emitted from matter exposed to beams of light with short wavelengths. In his explanation, Einstein suggested that light contained discrete quanta (photons) rather than continuous waves and the energy in these quanta caused light to behave more like a particle, thus moving the electrons.

Probably the most important part of this discovery was Einstein's use of Planck's constant and Planck's equation in his explanation of the photoelectric effect. This action alone helped expand the quantum theory towards quantum mechanics.

#6 Matter Waves

Probably one of the most astounding scientific discoveries was the de Broglie hypothesis. First proposed as part of Louis de Broglie's doctoral thesis, it stated that if light waves could possess properties then electrons should have wave properties. De Broglie had no empirical evidence whatsoever to support his idea, but based his hypothesis on the equations used by Einstein and Planck in their discoveries.

Matter waves were such a radical idea that de Broglie's advisors deferred the thesis to Einstein who gave it high praise and agreed with wave-particle duality. Thus, de Broglie was granted his doctorate and a new form of physics was expanded.

#7 The Uncertainity Principle

One of the most disputed topics in the early years of quantum physics was the Heisenberg uncertainty principle which stated that you cannot know simultaneously both the position and the momentum of a particle with any certainty or precision.

Einstein, de Broglie and Planck would not accept the idea that it was impossible to know everything about a phenomenon. They believed that an equation existed that could tie everything together. But, none of them were able to produce it. However, Heisenberg, Born and Bohr were able to further their position in what is known as the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum physics.

Chemistry - 7 Important Events That Led to the Discovery of Quantum Mechanics

Quantum mechanics is a difficult concept to fully grasp but that's not necessary in order to succeed in chemistry. All you need is an overview of how quantum mechanics came about to use it in chemistry. If you would like to know more about chemistry, I invite check out

What is the Discovery Stage of Divorce?

"Discovery" is a legal term that refers to a method by which both parties exchange information. There are two (2) ways of collecting and requesting information. The first method is called "formal discovery." Interrogatories (questions regarding custody, child support, income, resources, real estate, etc.), Requests for Production of Documents (request for tax returns, etc.) and Requests for Admissions (asking the other party to either admit or deny a statement) are all examples of formal discovery. The advantage of formal discovery is that the other party, by rule, needs to provide the answers or requested documents within thirty (30) days of the date of the request. Formal discovery can also be extremely helpful in areas where one spouse may be trying to hide financial information or is not forthcoming when it comes to providing financial information to the other spouse. It is also a helpful tool when determining the income of a self-employed individual or a business owner. Another example of formal discovery is a deposition where the attorney can depose a spouse.

At a deposition, a Court Reporter is present who takes down the questions and answers in a verbatim fashion. The witness is under oath. The deponent's testimony can be used later at trial if the deposition answer is different at trial. This also provides an opportunity to ask some questions to a deponent that could not have been asked in the same detail through writing or other discovery methods. The disadvantage of conducting formal discovery is that it is expensive and most of the time, if one spouse serves the other spouse with formal discovery requests, it is highly likely that the other party will also request information through formal discovery.


The second method of collecting information is "informal discovery" whereby the parties exchange financial information or other pertinent relevant information through oral request or simple correspondence. For example, tax returns, pension statements, or 401(k) plan statements can be provided via regular mail. The advantage of this process is that it is inexpensive compared to "formal discovery." The disadvantage of such a process may be that if a party wants to hide information, they could attempt to do so by not providing this information. Therefore, whether or not to conduct formal or informal discovery is a very important decision and involves careful analysis on the part of both the client and the lawyer.

What is the Discovery Stage of Divorce?

Even if informal discovery is conducted, it is a good idea to obtain a "Sworn Statement of Assets and Liabilities" so that in the event that something is later discovered, this document can be used to show the Court that the asset, debt or income was not included in the Divorce Decree. Discovery is a very important tool in a Divorce proceeding as it paves the way for a settlement or strategy at trial. Both spouses must have the same information and need to agree on values, assets, liabilities, etc. to have a meaningful settlement discussion or engage in meaningful Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms.

What is the Discovery Stage of Divorce?

Brian Clausen practices extensively in all areas of family law including divorce, complex asset and debt division, child custody and support, spousal maintenance, paternity, domestic abuse, and harassment. Hassan concentrates his practice on all areas of family law, including custody, spousal maintenance, complex property issues, as well as appellate practice. Please visit [] for specific conversations about getting a divorce in Minnesota.

Amazing Discovery - Baking Soda Cures Cancer

My stepfather and uncle died of cancer. My best friend also died of cancer. I have lots of reasons not to like cancer so I made up my mind to look for alternatives, to help others who may be in a bad way from cancer to find a solution.

You too may be looking for answers. Cancer is a devastating disease that not only kills its victims, but also tears apart their friends and loved ones. The frustration dealing with doctors who give you little hope and treatments that are often worse than the disease itself is almost too much to take.


Well I have spent years looking for answers as I watched my friends and family members pass away from this awful disease. I admit I am just a regular guy and I may not recognize as much as a doctor, but I can also tell you that I am here to get to the truth and I think I have discovered it through two amazing doctors.

Amazing Discovery - Baking Soda Cures Cancer

Dr. Timothy Brantley and Dr. T. Simoncini have discovered ways to help their patients beat cancer. And I think their solutions are powerful and should be shouted from the rooftops of every building. They are not miracle workers, just practitioners in search of the truth and looking to provide you answers. It all starts with understanding what causes cancer and what you can do to prevent it.

What Causes Cancer?

Cancer is the mystery disease. Billions have been spent to try to find a cure, yet you never hear anyone clearly specify what causes it. Sure we hear about certain bad habits like smoking or too much sun that may make you more vulnerable to getting cancer, but you never hear how you can get it in the first place.

Unfortunately, I have known far too many people who have contracted Cancer and have died. And despite modern medicines attempt with drugs (chemotherapy) or radiation (isn't that one of the causes?) most of the people using these traditional treatments lose their battle with cancer. In fact all I have seen from these types of treatments is quick deterioration in the patients health, plus they feel awful everyday from the treatment itself. In fact on Dr. Simoncini web site shows the fact that nearly all doctors themselves would not utilize the treatments they often prescribe:

"The great lack of trust is evident even amongst doctors. Polls and questionnaires show that three doctors out of four (75 percent) would refuse any chemotherapy because of its ineffectiveness against the disease and its devastating effects on the entire human organism. This is what many doctors and scientists have to say about chemotherapy:"

"The majority of the cancer patients in this country die because of chemotherapy, which does not cure breast, colon or lung cancer. This has been documented for over a decade and nevertheless doctors still utilize chemotherapy to fight these tumors." (Allen Levin, MD, UCSF, "The Healing of Cancer", Marcus Books, 1990)."

But recently, I have been hearing more and more about those that are living and beating cancer everyday. And the one thing I have learned through my research is that you have to beat cancer "everyday", because there really is no quick fix.

Two doctors who I think may have answers is Dr. Timothy Brantley and Dr Tullio Simoncini.

Dr. Brantley is a popular naturopathic herb doctor that I first saw on Rachael Ray show and later the Montel Williams show who teaches people that "You Are The Cause and You Are The Cure". In his book titled "The Cure Heal Your Body, Save Your Life" lays out the fundamentals on how he helped several people cure themselves of cancer by balancing their internal systems using a proper diet and aggressive detoxification. This process saved hundreds of his patients suffering numerous ailments. And he has helped celebrities like Sylvester Stallone, Kelsey Grammar and other famous people with their health issues.

The keys to balancing your system as established through Dr. Brantley's book is to remove the toxins that are trapped in your body and simultaneously stop adding more toxins. These toxins are made up of free radicals that wreak havoc on your body. Dr. Brantley says that all of the answers are in nature and if you focus on feeding your body foods from the earth then you can cure yourself of almost any disease. In addition, he offers herbal formulas that can help to remove years of built-up of toxins trapped in the vital organs of your body. And he writes that Cancer cannot live in a balanced body and I have seen his patients on the Montel William show who have claimed that they are now cancer free because of what Dr. Brantley has taught them.

If you want to find out "how toxic you are", Dr. Brantley offers a free health evaluation or join as a member to get access to his healthy recipes and other health reports he provides via his web site. And unlike most web sites with answers he gives all of this information without asking for any a penny.

On the other side of the spectrum is Dr. T. Simoncini a trained Medical Doctor specializing in Oncology (a cancer specialist). He is confident that Cancer is a fungus that can be treated and cured. The most surprising fact is that the treatment is using sodium bicarbonate a substance we know better as baking soda. Yes, I said baking soda like the one Arm N Hammer produces. Through his practice in Rome, Italy, Dr. Simoncini uses sodium bicarbonate directly where the tumor resides in the body. He hypothesized that tumors shared many of the same properties of a fungus; and since sodium bicarbonate was known to be a quick and powerful weapon capable of eliminating fungus he might be able to use it to combat the tumor. And it did as Dr. Simoncini explains "I thought that if I could administer high concentrations orally or intravenously I might be able to obtain the same result. So I started my tests and my experiments, which provided me immediately with tangible results."

These discoveries lead to equally burning questions that need to be asked: If something as simple as baking soda can reduce and eliminate tumors and changing your diet can eliminate and reduce cancer and tumors, why has the medical community not mobilized around these solutions? And why are we not shouting and lauding these discoveries in major forums where cancer is discussed?

The answer to these questions are not clear. Although you do not need to look far as who benefits from Cancer being treated in its current prescribed manner. According to the National Cancer Institute, cancer patients are going to cost Medicare alone billion for 5 years of care of 700,000 people. This is BIG BUSINESS folks. Don't let anyone tell you anything different. Pharmaceutical companies, MRI companies, doctors and hospitals would be crippled if all of these patients suddenly went away. Many doctors do not want to challenge these businesses who profit from cancer patients and in turn help fund the doctor's living.

If this is why these alternative cancer treatments have not been tested on a larger scale then it is a shame. However, you don't have to give up hope if you or a loved one has cancer. There is a cure for cancer and you do not need miracles. I pray you find this article and pass it along to as many people as you can, because you can save a life. God bless you and anyone else who has cancer or who has a loved one who has it.

Please click on the links below for additional information.

Dr. Brantley's web site

Dr. Brantley provides you a pathway to better health with Healthy recipes and a free health evaluation, articles and more. It's a worthwhile visit since they give so much information away for free. Also check out his herbal products.

Dr. Simoncini web site

Bucking the trend Oncologist Dr. Simoncini has an answer for tumors and cancer and it definitely will raise an eyebrow.

Amazing Discovery - Baking Soda Cures Cancer

Keith Mitchell is a freelance writer in the area of natural health and nutrition. He has been nationally published in health related magazines since 1998.

The Discovery of Copper

Nobody knows who discovered copper. In Iraq, archaeologists made a discovery of a copper pendant aging over 10,000 years. Unlike other metals, this metal is usually found in its natural state, not in the form of ores or compounds. Thus human believe copper was the first metal being used, probably used with meteoritic iron or gold.

The copper is thought to be a prehistoric metal. Evidence was found that was used by ancient Americans during 1000 B. C. Those days, copper was mainly used in the pure form. The American Indians in the Upper Peninsula of America used copper as the sources for spear tips, trinkets and jewelry.


According to the reference, there were two oldest civilizations that used the copper. They were Chaldea and Sumer. Similar to other founders of copper in other places, they made use copper to produce weapons. Sumerian craftsmen also made beautiful sculptures from copper and mounted them on the wall. One of the examples is the Imdugud Relief. It was dated 3100 B. C. and showed an eagle headed a lion and holding a stag in its claw.

The Discovery of Copper

Others claimed that copper was originally found and used by the Romans in Cyprus for almost 11, 000 years. They were the ones who discovered copper and named it after the island, which had abundance of copper resources. The name copper was originally cuprum, the Latin word named by the Romans. They discovered the many faceted abilities of the copper. The main usage of copper metal was for weaponry including spears, axes, knives and other household items like cutlery and pots.

There were other cultures that were listed to discover copper and using the metal for numerous stuffs. The Middle East was believed to be one of the earliest discoverers of copper. They primarily used copper on large scales to produce copper alloy by combining it with other metals. Among the examples were bronze and brass. The bronze and brass have better properties including being much more durable and more resistance towards damage compared to pure copper metal.

Copper and alloys were also abundantly used in the Far East and Turkey as early as 5000 B. C. The technology used in Asia was pretty similar to the one used in Mediterranean and America. However in the process of mining to smelting, they differ a little.

The prehistoric Hindus had used copper for other products like coins, cutleries, and lamps instead of weapons. There was also discovery of little copper tubes in the burial grounds under Egyptian pyramids.

To conclude this, one can never have precise statements about who discovered copper as nobody has the privileged to be accredited for copper discovery. It was basically found in all corners of the world at different times. Different cultures have interesting evolution of the metal into their respective fields.

The Discovery of Copper

Stuart is writing for many websites, He enjoys writing on wide range of topics such as who discovered copper and why does copper oxidize. You may visit for more details.

History Of Law Enforcement

Since the conception of society, law enforcement bodies have existed to protect citizens from criminals or to maintain the status quo and keep leaders in power. Dating back to Biblical times, there were military personnel tasked to maintain peace and order. In Egypt, for example, a pharaoh ruled the land and soldiers chased the Israelites across the Red Sea. There were other societies with military hierarchies as well, like the Babylonian, the Syrian, and the Palestinian societies, among others.

The most prominent of all military organizations was that of the Roman Empire. They had a very effective and brutal form of law enforcement that they utilized to maintain peace and order. It was the Romans who introduced the infamous symbol of the crucifix. The Romans never really had an actual police organization. It was only in the fifth century that clan chiefs and heads of state were tasked to police the people under their care.


London was the first to hire paid enforcers back in 1663. Afterwards, the trend spread across the United Kingdom. It was only in June of 1800, that the authorities of Glasgow, Scotland were able to establish the City of Glasgow Police. They were the first professional police enforcers that practiced preventive policing. In 1829, the Metropolitan Police Act was passed by Parliament. This established the first civil police force and the model used by many countries today, including the United States. Outside of the United Kingdom, the Gibraltar Police was the first police service in 1830. In 1721, Spain formed Mossos d'Esuadra in Catalonia. In 1834, the Toronto Police was founded in Canada. It was one of the first police departments in North America. The first full-time police force in United States was the Boston Police Department in 1839.

History Of Law Enforcement
History Of Law Enforcement

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Shroud of Turin New Evidence - A Breakthrough Discovery

The Shroud of Turin New Evidence reveals some pivotal information about the cloth that held the body of Jesus after he was taken down from the cross.

For many years after the shroud was photographed, scientists have worked hard to get more information on some of the clues left behind. This article will discuss some of the more recent findings found on this sacred cloth.


The Shroud of Jesus has been a topic of debate for many years. Skeptics and believers alike have been trying to further understand this sacred object. Skeptics are trying to get more information to prove that the shroud is a fake, while the believers are trying to get more evidence to prove Jesus' existence.

Shroud of Turin New Evidence - A Breakthrough Discovery

For many it's hard to believe that Jesus, the supposed Son of God, came and lived among us to spread his message of love. Accounts of his life are documented in the New Testament and within the different Gospels. People at the time, witnessed first hand the truth of his existence. Another piece of evidence we can refer to is the Shroud of Turin. When it was first photographed in 1898, a positive image of a man had shown in the negative prints.

Up until this point, scientists were able to discover that this man was not only beaten and tortured, but was crucified as well. Bilirubin was found in his blood to confirm this. This bile pigment only shows up in a person's blood if they suffered a traumatic beating. There were also several marks on his body that matched the patterns of a Roman flagrum. During that time period, this tool was used to inflict punishment on someone.

Scientists were also able to determine that the cloth originated from Jerusalem. They were able to do this because they had tested the shroud for dust and pollen. What they found was that there were 56 different pollens on the cloth, 17 of which were native to Europe and the rest was from Palestine in Southern Turkey. If the cloth was forged then they should have only found pollen samples from both France and Italy, which is where the Savoy family had been. Also, it was written that St. Peter took the Shroud of Turin to Edessa, Turkey. Evidence found on the cloth confirms this story.

There was testing done to determine the exact age by doing C14 Dating Testing. What they found, or claimed they found, was that the cloth was from the period 1260 - 1390 AD. This basically disproved the theory that shroud was from 26 AD which is the time Jesus would have lived. There were problems that were discovered with their findings. C14 Dating has always proven to be off by several thousands of years which is one possible cause. Scientists were able to prove this by testing other samples from different time periods.

The scientists and the religious groups that headed up the investigation and testing seemed to be biased on not believing the shroud was authentic. It seems they did everything to try to sabotage the tests. The person that headed up the supervision of the shroud testing, Dr. Michael Tite, wrote a letter to one of the labs asking for them to find a cloth that was similar to the Shroud of Turin. He denied this accusation until his letter was made public and then he had no choice but to admit to this act. The scientists that performed the testing also violated 14 different scientific protocols.

On a separate study, Dr. Alan Whanger, he was able to see two coins that covered each eye. On further observation, he was able to see the markings of the coins used during the time of Tiberius Caesar, who was the emperor at the time of Christ. This proves that the image was in fact from 29 AD because those coins were only found during that time period. Not only that, it proves that the shroud was in fact from Israel. This was the official time stamp.

The Shroud of Turin New Evidence was discovered by Dame Isabel Piczek, a Particle Physicist. She was able to observe from the image that there was a strange dividing element. From this she created a 3 dimensional object and found that the body was not pressed against the ground and that the image was perfect. This meant that the cloth was stretched out and the body was hovering at the time, the image was created. She went on to mention that most people thought that the shroud represented death, in her opinion the shroud and the tomb represent an unbelievable beginning. She parallels the happenings of what happened in the Universe to the theory of the Big Bang.

The Shroud of Turin New Evidence always seems to be appearing in different studies. Jesus himself did not want to force anyone into believing in him. Through his miracles, it was evidence enough. All that he asked was for people to open their hearts and to have faith.

Shroud of Turin New Evidence - A Breakthrough Discovery

For more information on the Shroud visit Shroud of Turin New Evidence.

Handel Lamp History

Philip Julius Handel first established the Handel Company in Meriden, Connecticut in 1876. They specialized in high quality reverse painted lamp shades and were generally considered a less expensive alternative to the Tiffany lamp popularized by Louis Comfort Tiffany. They also made leaded glass shades similar to Tiffany as well as vases, humidor boxes and other decorative objects. The most popular lamps of the Art Nouveau 1890-1920 and the Art Deco period 1920-1939 were Tiffany, Handel, Pairpoint and Duffner & Kimberly.

Philip Handel (age 19) and Adolph Eydam (age 21) formed a partnership in 1885 and created the "Eydam and Handel Company" in Meriden, Connecticut specializing in glass decorating and lamp manufacturing. They used lamp bases from other suppliers not their own lamp bases. In 1892 the partnership ended and the company later moved to larger facilities in New York city in 1893 and was known as "Philip J. Handel" and later as "Handel and Company". In 1902 they opened their own foundry and began producing their own lamp bases. The Handel Company was incorporated on June 11, 1903 and Philip J. Handel, Albert Parlow, and Antone Teich were the principals. In 1906, Philip J. Handel married Fannie Hirschfield Handel his second wife. She became the company's president upon Philip Handel's death in 1914. In 1918 she remarried and in 1919 William F. Handel, Philip's cousin took control of the company.


Following World War I was a period of tremendous growth. The economy was roaring and the company had assembled a very impressive and talented group of artists and craftsmen. However, the Great Depression drastically changed the company's fortunes and by 1929 the company was struggling. The company ceased production completely in 1936. The Handel Lamp Company was the very finest maker of reverse-painted lamps. Handel also made some leaded glass lamps. The company is a prime example of fine American quality craftsmanship.

Handel Lamp History

Handel bases were most commonly made of a zinc alloy, spelter with a bronze patina or finish. Some were made of genuine bronze. The marking was commonly the company name on the bottom of the base. The markings consisted of raised letters and/or a label. Sometimes the marking would be underneath the base or sometimes on top of the the base. Lamp shades were marked on metal components and/or on the glass itself. Some of the glass pieces are signed by the artists.

Many of the medium to larger Handel lamp bases were wired with multiple sockets which were operated by pull chains that had small and various shaped pull balls on the ends of the chain.

It has long been a common practice to match slag glass lamp shades, Tiffany type shades and others to various lamp bases that were not the original. Another common practice has been to place an unsigned shade on a signed Handel lamp base and pass the entire lamp off as a "Handel". Many if not most lamps and shades are referred to as Handel lamps simply because the style is similar to that of an original Handel lamp. Experts today suggest that about 90% of all lamps called Handel were not actually made by Handel. There are many lamps that are signed but that are not authentic. Identification of Handel leaded lamps is a subjective process that few people are qualified to do.

Given the company's history it may be difficult to prove the negative: i.e. that a particular lamp is NOT a Handel. But as usual, money speaks and you will find that a Handel lamp and shade with correct markings, attributes and documentation commands a very premium price as compared to any lamp that is "attributed to Handel".

For instance, some of Handel's small and simple desk and simple piano lamps have recently sold for around 0. Generally the more complex ones sell for over ,000. There are some rare ones that have sold for over ,000.

Some Handel glass artists are highly regarded and their works bring a premium price. Their signatures can be seen on some Handel lamp shades. Among these Handel artists are Bailey, Bedigie, Broggi, Gubisch, Matzow, Palme, and Parlow and Runge.

Handel Lamp History

Jim Hoyle
Biography: Since 1979 Jim Hoyle has owned and operated Lamp Outlet - North Carolina's Most Unique Table Lamps, Floor Lamps and Antique Lamps - Antique lamps and exclusive new unique table lamps and floor lamps. Contact Jim at

Electronic Discovery - Can Contents of My Electronic Communications Be Used As Evidence in Court?

Online communications: "Meet me online so we can talk privately for all to read."

The use of electronic internet devices such as computers, laptops, cell-phones and smart phones, has led to an explosion of readily available information. The web has become a literal smorgasbord of data - facts galore, sports stats heaven, and the latest teenage nonsense can all be accessed at the touch of a button, or the touch of a screen. The sheer amount of "stuff" can seem at times more like a virus outbreak than an explosion, or like a tidal wave that wipes out the casual web surfer.


Even more accessible than before are our communications. Social networking sites have put the very corners of our private life on blast for all to see and read. The latest posts and status updates let everyone know where we've been, what we ate, what we think about the latest movie, what we're going to wear tomorrow - the list is as endless as our observations of the minutest details of our minute-to-minute existence.

Electronic Discovery - Can Contents of My Electronic Communications Be Used As Evidence in Court?

And our conversations are getting memorialized in the form of comments and instant messages, sometimes allowing random intruders to interject in our sophisticated discussions of the most recent happenings. "Who is this person again?" is not an uncommon question when chatting with an online "friend".

As these internet devices are used more and more for "private" communications, the question begs to be asked, "Can my electronic communications be used as evidence in court against me?" In general, the answer to this is "yes" - this information can be used, subject to various limitations, during what is known as the discovery process of a trial. What follows is a discussion of the basic applications of discovery to electronic information.

What is "The Discovery Process" in General?
In general, evidence gathered during the pre-trial phase of a lawsuit is known as discovery. During the discovery phase, each party is allowed to request documents and other items from the opposing side. Following the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP), these documents and items are entered into the record to be admitted as evidence. If a party is unwilling to produce documents for discovery, the other party may force them to hand over the evidence using discovery devices such as a subpoena.

Usually the objects produced during discovery tend to be documents and records kept on file by a person or a business. Some items are not admissible as evidence. Examples of items that may not be reached during discovery are those protected by the attorney-client privilege, or items that have been illegally seized by warrant.

What is "Electronic Discovery"?
In legal parlance, electronic discovery, or "e-discovery" refers to discovery of Electronically Stored Information. Electronically Stored Information, or "ESI" is an actual legal term adopted by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in 2006. ESI refers to information that is created, stored, and used in digital form, and requires the use of a computer for access. Such information may take the form of documents, e-mails, web site addresses, and digitally stored photographs. ESI is subject to the basic principals that govern the discovery phase. Once admitted as evidence, ESI becomes "electronic evidence".

However, because ESI is a relatively recent phenomenon (legally speaking), and because of its unique nature, there are various rules and statutes that are unique to e-discovery. E-discovery can often be much more demanding than traditional discovery, both time-wise and financially, because of the enormous amount of information that can be stored on a computer.

Which Laws Govern E-Discovery?

Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP)
As mentioned, the basic rules governing e-discovery are the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP). Specifically, Rule 16 was amended in 2006 to include ESI. The greatest contribution of FRCP to the discussion of e-discovery is the term ESI.

The U.S. Constitution: 4th Amendment Search and Seizure rules apply
Under the U.S. Constitution, electronically stored information is subject to the same 4th amendment protections guiding the search and seizure process. Some of these 4th amendment inquires include whether or not the person has a privacy interest in the property, and whether the police obtained a valid search warrant in seizing the property. As we will see, in the realm of e-discovery, obtaining valid search warrant is a central theme of the discussion.

The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (EPCA)
Born out of old-school wiretapping legislation, the EPCA is one of the main legislative Acts affecting e-discovery. This federal statute prohibits third parties from intercepting and using electronic communications without proper authorization. The term "third parties" applies to both government actors and private citizens. "Proper authorization" has been subject to scrutiny, since many websites often contain questionable disclosure agreements. The Act protects communications that are either in storage or in transit.

While the EPCA does secure a good amount of privacy for the electronics user, it has been the target of much criticism. For example, the Act initially did not protect e-mails while they were in transit. However, later cases ruled that this would defeat the entire purpose of the Act, since e-mails are transient at least once in their existence. E-mails are now protected both in storage and in transit.

Another criticism of the Act is that it is not very difficult for government actors to find ways around the "proper authorization" requirement. All that the agent would need to do is state that the information was relevant to issues of national security, i.e., counter-terrorism. Therefore a proper warrant is relatively easy to secure if the agent could justify a seizure of the ESI based on anti-terrorism theories. Also, warrantless seizures are easily justified on such a theory. Many of the concerns with anti-terrorism became more complicated with the passage of the Patriot Act of 2001, which gave government agents even more access to ESI.

Popular Categories of ESI that are Discoverable
Courts have ruled that basically all forms of ESI are discoverable. As stated, in order for ESI to be obtained in discovery, the government actor or private individual must still adhere to discovery rules and search and seizure requirements. Here are some notes to consider regarding the various forms of ESI:

Under the EPCA, e-mails are protected from improper disclosure by third parties both in storage and in transit. The Federal Rules in 2006 specifically named e-mails as ESI and therefore they are discoverable as long as the proper procedures are followed. Two main points in the discovery of e-mails are the temporary nature of e-mails, and the level of specificity required in the warrant or discovery request.

In a 2003 case, Zubulake v. UBS Warburg 217 F.R.D. 309 (S.D.N.Y. 2003), a great deal of effort was expended during the case in trying to prove the existence of certain e-mails. In this case, the e-mails sought were never found, nor was it proven that they were destroyed, and the court ruled that they did likely exist. UBS was sanctioned heavily for not preserving information that might be subject to discovery. The case illustrates how important it is to be timely in the production of ESI, because it is subject to being erased or deleted.

In another 2003 case, Theofel v. Jones-Farley 341 F.3d 978 (2003), a lawyer requesting production of e-mails was sanctioned for not specifying the dates of the e-mails requested (he had requested that all of the company's e-mails be produced). This case demonstrates that in discovery of ESI, a lawyer needs to be very specific as to which e-mails are requested. Courts need to be able to identify which e-mails are relevant to their opinion; if they cannot do so, the discovery request will be denied.

Text Messages, Instant Messages, and Chats
Text messages, Instant Messages (IM), and Chats are all ESI and are treated like e-mails for the purposes of discovery. Therefore they are discoverable. Many users of text and instant message believe that because their messages are executed on a mobile phone, their communications are deleted once sent. However, most service providers keep a record of texts and IM's for anywhere from one to three months after they are sent. Also, after the Zubulake case, companies are much more wary of clearing messages from their database, especially if the message is "potentially discoverable" in a pending case.

Text messages and the like can also present problems with timeliness, as they tend to be deleted from the database even more quickly than e-mails. Also, most texts do not have a title as do e-mails, so they can be cumbersome to sift through for the relevant information. They are still, however, discoverable.

Social Networking Websites
Information posted on sites such as MySpace or Facebook is definitely considered to be ESI and subject to discovery. This means that anything posted by a profile owner that is incriminating could be used against them in court as electronic evidence.

Attorneys now regularly search such networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook to gather information that might be relevant to their cases. This might involve identifying witnesses, or collecting statements that might add testimonial weight to their case. Also, photographs posted online can be used in various ways to establish a case. Therefore profile owners should be wary of posting any information that might be used against them in court.

To date there have been no major corporate legal cases that relied heavily on the production of discovery information from social networks such as Facebook or Twitter. A recent Canadian case, Leduc v. Roman 2009 CanLII 6838 (ON S.C.), held that information posted on websites such as Facebook must be disclosed upon request even if the person has blocked public access to their profile. It probably won't be long before we see some major American cases dealing with the production of evidence from social network sites.

Most legal cases involving social networks and privacy have been the other way around: the website intruded on people's privacy with invasive advertisement. Perhaps the reluctance to involve such information in litigation is that these websites are very new to the scene. Also, most companies agree that e-discovery in a social network setting can be a potential nightmare. As with texts, there are usually no titles in much of the information posted, not to mention the various applications and different features of such sites. Finally, most attorneys would prefer to rely on traditional forms of evidence such as witness testimony, before relying on information from networking sites.

More recently, the Philadelphia State Bar Association has published an opinion regarding attorneys' use of third parties to obtain information from social networks. The opinion stated that an attorney should not use a third party in order to gain access to a person's profile, for example, by asking someone else to make a friend request in order to remain anonymous. Although information on social network sites is discoverable, attorneys and state officials must still abide by rules of ethics and professional conduct.

A Final Note: Creative Lawyering and E-Discovery
Finally, remember that it is not always the content of electronically stored information that can be incriminating. ESI can be used in many creative ways. The information might be used to prove a required element of a crime, such as the person's mental state, or a person's location in a particular place. For example, if a suspect's alibi might be questioned if a computer log shows that they were actively online at a different place. Creative lawyering means that a lawyer will use any information to prove their case, and they might do so in ways not commonly imagined.

So, it is to your benefit that you be aware of the possibility of electronic information being used as evidence. Obviously, posting incriminating evidence is unwise, but bear in mind that information can be used in a variety of ways. Even seemingly harmless conversations can be used to prove guilt in a court of law. And statements that other people post on a user's profile are also fair game. It is nearly impossible not to be involved with ESI in some way or another, but a little common sense can go a long way.

Electronic Discovery - Can Contents of My Electronic Communications Be Used As Evidence in Court?

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Cornucopia - Meaning, History, Tips and Suggestions

A cornucopia, pronounced korn-yoo-KO-pee-uh, is a horn-shaped container. It is a time-honored symbol, long associated with Thanksgiving, that symbolizes abundance. It is also known as the "horn of plenty" and is usually filled with an assortment of the Earth's harvest.

Although it is usually a symbol of Thanksgiving, it was symbolic well before this holiday existed. The word 'cornucopia' actually dates back to the 5th century BC. It derives from two Latin words: "cornu," meaning horn (as in the name of that one-horned creature, the "unicorn") and "copia," meaning plenty.  Thus, "cornucopia" literally means horn of plenty, and the names are used interchangeably.  


The cornucopia was usually depicted as a curved goat's horn, filled to overflowing with fruit and grain and nuts, but could actually have been filled with whatever the owner wished. 

Cornucopia - Meaning, History, Tips and Suggestions

Today, the cornucopia often finds its way to the Thanksgiving table as a centerpiece. It is made like a basket and filled to overflowing with fresh flowers and fruits, nuts, and vegetables. Many people have such a basket that they bring annually to their local flower shop to be filled anew with a harvest of seasonal products. 

Most florists carry cornucopias and keep them on hand during the Thanksgiving season.  A horn of plenty centerpiece looks great on a Thanksgiving table or side buffet table arranged with flowers, dried wheat, or cattails, too.  Florists can use their design skills to come up with all different types of cornucopia arrangements using lotus pods, nuts, and dried fruit.  Gourds or miniature pumpkins can be used as well.

A cornucopia is a perfect symbol of gratitude for all that we have - and all that we wish to share.

Have a wonderful holiday!

Cornucopia - Meaning, History, Tips and Suggestions

Author Laura M. Scott is an expert on plant care, an award-winning floral designer, and owner of Gingerbread House Florist and Gifts in Raleigh, NC. She designs and creates cornucopias during the holiday season. Visit Gingerbread House Florist and Gifts on the web at []

Laura's shop delivers flowers and plants anywhere in the world.

The History Of Italian Food

While some of the most popular dishes associated with the Italian culture include a tempting slice of pizza and a heaping plate of pasta, there is much more to the world of Italian cooking. Throughout the many regions in Italy, the distinctive cuisine of the Italians shines through in a wide-range of eating habits, styles of cooking, and selection of local ingredients. The changing of the times has also influenced Italian food, as the meals served in the pre-Roman era possess both similarities and differences in the cuisine of today.

The culinary history of Italy established a reputation more than 2,000 years ago, which includes an illustrious movement during the Roman Empire. Culturally, food preparation was quite important in the past where flashes of significance have been captured in the only surviving cookbook (Apicius), which dates back to the first century BC.


The spread of Italian food diversity began after the fall of the Roman Empire when individual city states began to uphold separate identities and traditions. Each region began to display its own unique way of cooking, right down to the formation of a meatball to the characteristic cheeses and wine produced in a locale. The north developed Tuscan beef, while black truffles were very popular in Marches. Provolone and mozzarella cheeses developed in the south, as well as a host of interesting citrus fruits.

The History Of Italian Food

Diverse types of bread, variations in pasta, and varying food preparation techniques also differed according to region. The southern regions of Italy embrace hard-boiled spaghetti, while the north often prefers a soft egg noodle. Milan is known for their risotto, while Bologna has a deep history regarding tortellini, and Naples is famous for their pizzas.

Over the years, Italian cuisine has greatly evolved in part because of a wealth of outside influences that have added to its characteristic flavor and appeal. In the beginning, ancient Greek cookery became an integrated part of Italian cuisine. Eventually, a wealth of imports found their way into the kitchens of early Italians, who sent Roman ships to collect a variety of important foods, including wheat, wine, exotic ingredients, and fine spices from around the world. Some ships even traveled to faraway locations, such as China, to bring back edible resources that catapulted the depth and variety of Italian cooking styles.

Coastal regions are known for their developments in delicious fish and seafood dishes. For example, the island of Sardinia supplies a more traditional and simple style of cuisine, which often incorporated delicacies, associated with the sea. Swordfish, lobster, anchovies, sardines, and other Mediterranean treats represent Italian cooking of the area. In Sicily (another island region), a great deal of the cooking drew heavily from North African influences. An Arab influence also affected cuisine on the island and within the rest of the south, especially with the introduction of various spices and sweets, such as the Sicilian ice cream cake called cassata.

As for one of the most popular Italian dishes, while the history books often state that pasta was a product of the Chinese brought back by Venetian merchant, Marco Polo, it was actually a rediscovery of a food item eaten during Etruscan and Roman times. It is believed that the first pasta in Italy was made similar to the noodles of today - from the same durum wheat - which was cooked in ovens instead of boiled in water.

Today, the differences in Italian cooking still show through in the distinctions between the north and the south. Each region still carries their own traditions in cooking that reflects deep history and culture with a never ending supply of main courses, appetizers, and desserts that continuously tempts the taste buds.

The History Of Italian Food

Are you ready to jump in and cook some wonderful Italian recipes? Then visit for a cookbook that includes some all-time restaurant favorites including Olive Garden's Chicken Marsala.

History Of Fashion Design

The realm of fashion design, by its sheer glamour and grace, has always been exciting and intriguing. When we talk of fashion design, it implies a form of art that incorporates the nuances of creating clothes and accessories.

The history of fashion design can be traced back to the beginning of the19th century when the designs were the product of the dresses worn in the royal courts. Eventually, Charles Frederick Worth, the first fashion designer, set up his first fashion house in Paris. His designs greatly influenced the people and they labeled them as the designs of the "House Of Worth." As a result, a designer became synonymous with a particular brand.


Another important designer who made a significant contribution to the evolution of the fashion was Paul Poi Ret. He blended the classical style consisting of aesthetic dressing with Paris fashion. Other important designers of this age were Patou, Vionnet, Fortuny, Lanvin and Chanel.

History Of Fashion Design

Throughout the 20th century, Paris remained the world's fashion hub, with countries such as the US and Britain openly aping the French designs. The post World War era saw the emergence of other countries as the centers of fashion and Paris ceased to be the sole influential factor. The rising British fashion industry brought a new range of street fashion focusing mainly on the young consumers.

Later, American designers such as Calvin Klein And Ralph Lauren came to the fore with their sportswear and made it a style statement. Today, fashion designs can be categorized into two main categories. The haute couture is designed for individual customers. The other category is the ready-to-wear collection. While the former is based on certain themes and is more for creating a style statement, the latter is meant for the masses.

The mid-90s saw the emergence of a new breed of designers who redefined traditional concepts. They looked at fashion from a new angle, creating their own new concepts.

Thus, the world of fashion design has witnessed a steady evolution over the years and has been the by-product of the sincere efforts of many of the top designers.

History Of Fashion Design

Fashion Design [] provides detailed information on Fashion Design, Fashion Design Schools, Fashion Design Programs, Fashion Design Games and more. Fashion Design is affiliated with Fabric Hammocks [].

Buttons - History and Facts

When did buttons begin to be used? What was used to secure clothing before them? Some history and facts about the button:

  • Button-like objects have been found in the Indus Valley of ancient Pakistan and date back to around 2000 B.C.E. These were not used for fasteners, but for ornaments. Before they were used for fastening, pins, leather lacing and belts were used to secure clothing.
  • Before buttons could be used as fasteners, the button hole had to be devised. Evidence dates the first button and button hole closure systems to the 13th century in Germany. This may have been a solution to the problem of how to secure clothing that was becoming more and more form-fitting, without having to resort to sharp pins.
  • As with most anything that is new, they became a fad. Buttons and button holes covered the clothing of the well to do. The number of them and what they were made out of became a status symbol. It has been rumored that King Louis XIV of France spent over million on them in his lifetime.
  • Ever wonder why men's suit coats have non-functioning buttons sewn on the sleeves? Some say they are just for decoration, but there is also the story that King Frederick The Great of Prussia started the practice in the 18th century. The rumor goes that after an inspection of his troops, he ordered that buttons be sewn on the sleeves of their coats to discourage them from wiping their noses on them!
  • The Scovill Manufacturing Company in America made a set of gold buttons with the profile of George Washington on them that were presented to Marquis de Lafayette during his U.S. visit in 1824.
  • With the increased cost of ivory in the 19th century, button manufacturers began to make them out of a nut from a specific kind of palm tree in South America. This is called vegetable ivory, or corozo. When the nut is dried, it is a very reasonable facsimile for genuine ivory, and is still used today.
  • The first buttons made from celluloid, one of the first types of plastics, were made in the 1860's.
  • Before World War One, most button manufacturing was done in Europe, specifically England. After the war, the United States became the center of button making until modern times.


Buttons - History and Facts
Buttons - History and Facts

Alan Beggerow is a free lance writer. Visit his writing services website, Ghostwriter, at

History of Discrimination

Discrimination has a long history throughout the world.  Most societies, especially the larger ones, have practiced some form and some degree of discrimination.  In fact, a notable trend (though by no means necessarily an always true law) is that larger societies have had a larger propensity to discriminate.  Why?  Because of their achievements.  Larger societies, to reach the size that they were, had to accomplish.  They built extensive and complicated networks.  Their engineering was on a scale and level enough to support a large society.  Their art was complex.  They had a formal language and writing system.  All of these things were--and are--marvelous achievements.  But couple with them the fact that for most of human history, people lived only within their societies and had almost no contact with peoples of different societies, and it becomes easy to see why discrimination occurred.  They saw others as foreign and "backward," not having accomplished as much as they did.

From a list of all of the societies that ever existed, it is easy to pick out societies that discriminated.  Spain used to discriminate heavily against the Jews, who were forced either to convert Catholicism or to leave Spain.  The Spanish also created a body--called the Inquisition--to persecute who were not like them.  So, people were persecuted for being Jews.  If someone was thought to be a witch, the she or he was also persecuted.  Likely, homosexuals were also persecuted.


In South Africa, Australia, and the Untied States, the black and indigenous populations have faced heavy persecution.  Jim Crow laws in the United States, intentionally imitated by South African and Australia, persecuted blacks.  Segregation was prevalent in all of these three countries.  Blacks were illegally prevented from voting.  Violence against blacks was common.  In the Untied States, the native American population faced heavy discrimination.  Their families were broken up, the children were forced to go schools that would eradicate their culture, and families were forced to abandon their original ways of life and live on reservations.

History of Discrimination

Fortunately, the world as a whole is less tolerant of discrimination today than it was in the past.  Most nations have laws barring most, if not all, forms of discrimination (discrimination based on sexual orientation is an exception, though, and still faces a lot discrimination across the world).

One specific barring of discrimination in the U.S. involves employment practices.  Employers are prevented by the law from discriminating against employees or potential employees (during interviews).  If you feel you have been a victim of any sort of work place discrimination, contact the Orange County Employment Discrimination Lawyers of Perry Smith by visiting their website or by calling 888-356-2529.

History of Discrimination

Joseph Devine

The Sweet History of Muffins

Muffin n. a small, cup-shaped bread, often sweetened and usually served hot.

The derivation of the word muffin comes from the French word moufflet which is often times applied to bread and means soft.


The two main types of muffins are English muffins and American style muffins. They vary in style as well as flavor and history.

The Sweet History of Muffins

English muffins are a flat yeast raised muffin with nooks and crannies that are cooked on a hot griddle. English muffin history dates all the way back to the 10th and 11th centuries in Wales. Early English muffins were cooked in muffin rings which were hooplike and placed directly on a stove or the bottom of a skillet.

American style muffins on the other hand are more of a quick bread that is made in individual molds. The molds are necessary due to the mixture being a batter rather than dough. These muffins were originally leavened with potash which produces carbon dioxide gas in the batter. When baking powder was developed around 1857 it put an end to the use of potash as well as to the profitable potash exports to the old country.

Muffin recipes first began to appear in print in the mid 18th century and quickly caught on. By the 19th century muffin men walked the streets of England at tea time to sell there muffins. They wore trays of English muffins on there heads and rang there bells to call customers to there wares.

Three states in the United States of America have adopted official muffins. Minnesota has adopted the blueberry muffin as the official state muffin. Massachusetts in 1986 adopted the Corn Muffin as the official state muffin. Then in 1987 New York took on the Apple Muffin as its official muffin of choice.

So next time you bite into a warm muffin think about its sweet history.

The Sweet History of Muffins

Shauna Hanus is a gourmet cook who specializes in creating gourmet recipes. She has extensive experience cooking with easy to find grocery items to create delightful gourmet meals. She is also the publisher of a no cost bi-monthly gourmet newsletter. Her newsletter is always fun and informational packed with tips and trivia you can use everyday. Sign up for her newsletter and learn more about Gourmayeats Weekly Recipe Club at []

A Brief History Of The Electric Guitar

The Electric guitar hasn't been around nearly as long as the Acoustic and Classical guitars. In fact, the Electric guitar was created just 70 years ago (the 1930s) by Adolph Rickenbacker. Since that time, the Electric guitar has greatly evolved to the where it is today. In this article, we'll go over the history of the Electric guitar.

The History


Guitars, or similar instruments, have been around for thousands of years. The Electric guitar was first manufactured in the 1930s by Rickenbacker. Original Electric guitars used tungsten pickups. Pickups basically convert the vibration of the strings into electrical current, which is then fed into the amplifier to produce the sound.

A Brief History Of The Electric Guitar

The very earliest Electric guitars featured smaller soundholes in the body. These guitars are known as semi-hollow body Electric guitars and still are somewhat popular today, mainly due to the fact that they are flexible guitars.

However, with the use of pickups, it was possible to create guitars without soundholes (like the Acoustic and Classical guitars have) that still had the ability to be heard, if plugged into amplifiers. These guitars are called solid body Electric guitars.

The Electric guitar's popularity began to increase during the Big Band era of the '30s and 40s. Due to the loudness of the brass sections in jazz orchestras, it was necessary to have guitars that could be heard above the sections. Electric guitars, with the ability to be plugged into amplifiers, filled this void.

The Electric guitar that is most prevalent today is the solid body Electric guitar. The solid body guitar was created by musician and inventor Les Paul in 1941. It is a guitar made of solid wood with no soundholes. The original solid body guitar created by Paul was very plain--it was a simple rectangular block of wood connected to a neck with six steel strings. Les Paul's original solid body guitar shape has, of course, changed from the original rectangular shape to the more rounded shape Les Paul guitars have today.

During the 1950s, Gibson introduced Les Paul's invention to the world. The Gibson Les Paul, as it was and still is called, quickly became a very popular Electric guitar. It has remained the most popular guitar for 50 years.

Around the same period of time, another inventor named Leo Fender came up with a solid body Electric guitar of his own. In the late 1940s, Fender introduced the Fender Broadcaster Electric guitar. The Broadcaster, which was renamed the Stratocaster, was officially introduced to the public in 1954. The Strat, as it is now known, was a very different guitar in comparison to the Les Paul. It had a different shape, different hardware and was significantly lighter. Fender's Stratocaster Electric guitar is the second most popular guitar in the world, second to only the Les Paul.

Over the years, other companies, such as Ibanez, Jackson, Paul Reed Smith, ESP and Yamaha have all produced solid body Electric guitars of their own. However, most Electric guitars still feature the familiar shape of a Les Paul or Strat guitar.

A Brief History Of The Electric Guitar

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