The Effect of the Cold War on the World

The Cold War existed between the 1940s to the 1990s. It was a conflict between the United States and the USSR together with their respective allies. The powers at war engaged in boosting their respective defense systems that led to massive spending of their national resources.

The Cold War was firmly expressed through propaganda, military coalitions, weapons development, espionage, industrial advances as well as technological development. Such activities successfully heightened further competition and tension between the warring parties.

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The cold war led to numerous proxy wars, and new developments in both nuclear and conventional arms. Hence, because of the Cold War, numerous countries in the world today possess nuclear weapons that pose a great threat to world existence.

The Cold War also led to significant effects in neighboring countries as well as those far away. Such international crises as the Korean War, the Berlin Blockade, the Vietnam War, the Berlin crisis, and Soviet's invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 were a direct manifestation of the cold war. Quite a number of countries experienced massive losses in wealth and life at such times.

Yet another adverse effect of the war was the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 that widely drew fears of an impending Third World War. In addition, in November 1983, a ten-day NATO command exercise that spanned a major part of Western Europe simulated a time of conflict escalation, with heightened nuclear alerts, which finally culminated in a well-coordinated nuclear release.

At the end of the Cold War in the 1990s, several counties including the Soviet Union suffered monumental economic stagnation as a direct result of investment in the war. The effects of the war are far reaching and they contributed to the final collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, leaving the US as a sole superpower.

The Effect of the Cold War on the World

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Finding a Free Purse Pattern You Can Sew

Sewing Purse Projects

When you love to create your own handmade items, you may want to consider using a free purse pattern. Sew them up to make some amazing handbags, totes and purses. There is something special about being able to sew, your very own handmade bags. Whether you are making them for yourself, for just about any event or occasion or maybe you are planning to surprise someone special with something they will treasure forever.

\"history For Kids\"

Online you can find many different types of free purse pattern. Sew and create any style purse you like. You will find that there are so many online, which you can choose. It may be difficult to choose just one type of purse pattern that you would like to use. For instance, you may be interested in using patterns to make those small or tiny purses such as coin purses or a clutch purse. You may also find other larger patterns for anything from a beach bag to a sexy, sultry Noriko Handbag.

Of course, there are many other types and styles of free purse patterns. For instance, some of those you may be interested in are adventure bags, travel wallets, backsacks, or book purses. Bags made from furnishing fabrics, pleated pouches, envelope handbags, fancy totes, quilt bags, duffle bags, denim handbags and blue jean purses. You will learn how to use these patterns while making some very cute handbags and purses.

Use Free Patterns to Create Purses to Sew

Making your own handbags and purses can be fun and unique. When you make your own fashion accessories, you guarantee yourself something that is distinctive and one of a kind. You can learn to make some of the most popular types of purses while using a purse pattern you found online. You can make them from different materials and in various colors as stated above.

Some of the most unusual and interesting purses you may want to make for yourself will vary. However, some of the more distinctive purses may include such items as a book purse, jeans purse or even a bra purse. Alternatively, you may want to use a pattern that teaches you how to make a purse out of a cowboy boot. While following these various patterns you will be able to embellish the purses you make to suit your particular sense of fashion.

Find Free Patterns For Sewing Purse for Any Occasion

You may be searching for a free purse pattern, sew it as basic or intricate as you like. You can make something special like a decorative bridal bag or an elegant evening bag, you will be able to find something that is easy to follow and make. Take the time to look around to find just the right pattern to suit your needs; you may even want to make more than one type, design or style of purses. You can find free handbag and tote patterns for just about any occasion or event.

Sewing, your very own handmade creations can be fun. Sewing your own purses can provide you with the fashion accessories that you need to compliment your wardrobe. They are fun to give as gifts and who knows, you may find your friends are requesting you to make one for them. Maybe you may want to make them to sell locally or online.

Finding a Free Purse Pattern You Can Sew

For more information, patterns and instructions about sewing for home, personal and crafts projects. There are online sewing classes and patterns for beginners. You will find help with projects from quilts to Barbie clothes, dresses to curtains.

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Computer Appreciation For Beginners (Part 1)

To those who really want to be perfect in computer operation and understanding, this article which shall come in 'parts' will lead you gently from the basics of computer to the complex usage of the software in the system. Before one starts using the programs in the system, he or she wants understand the system components and their usage. And so I wish to let you know of the meaning of computer and probably the generations of computer.

Definition of a Computer System
Computer is defined in so many ways by so many people based on their field of specialization. A computer is a set of interrelated and interactive devices, which uses electronic components to perform a predefined operation with accuracy. But generally, a computer system may simply be defined as an electronic device, which is capable of accepting data as input, process the data, store the data and provide a result as output in human readable form. The four basic parts of a computer are Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse and System unit.

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A Brief History of Computer
Computer history and development is always traced to Charles Babbage, the Father of computers and Lady Ada Lovelace, the Mother of Programming. The computer we have come to use today perfectly without any much stress and difficulty was not invented the way we have seen but passed through series of processes and stages. There exist five generations of computer as briefly discussed below:

First Generation Computer (The Vacuum Tube Technology)
This generation of computers consists of computers developed between 1944 and 1959. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator), EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computers) and UNIVAC 1 and 11 are first generation computers. This generation of computers were very bulky, dissipates a lot of heat, some were very heavy, weighing up to 200 tons. Because of the heat, they needed special cooling system. The characteristic technology of this generation was the use of vacuum tubes as the basic building blocks for the logic parts of the computers. In terms of speed they were very slow compared with computers of later generations.

Second Generation Computer (The Transistor Technology)
The technology, which gave the distinguishing characteristics of the second -generation computers, was the transistor technology. Although this device was developed in 1948 in Bell Telephone Laboratories, and was used largely in the electronic world, it was not until 1959 that it was introduced in the manufacture of computers. These transistors replaced the bulky vacuum tubes. In addition to doing everything that the vacuum tube could do, the transistors would do so with greater reliability, with less power requirement, generate less heat, less costly to manufacture and much smaller in size. The computers developed between 1959 and 1964 are called the second-generation computers. Examples: IBM 7030, 7070, 7090, 7094, Boroughs 200 series, UNIVAC III, Honey-well 800 etc. The development of high level programming languages like FORTRAN and COBOL was another innovation brought by the second-generation computers and were 10 times faster than the first.

Third Generation Computers (Integrated Circuit Technology)
Between 1964 and 1971, the third generation computers were developed. It was the technology of integrated circuits that opened the gates to the third generation computers. In fact we can say that the integrated circuit technology really revolutionized the computer technology itself. Integrated circuits are attached to a small piece of silicon chip. This technology cam progressively from Small Scale Integration (SSI), which contained about twenty interconnected transistors and diodes, through the Medium Scale Integration (MSI) which had over hundred interconnected transistors on a single chip, to Large Scale Integration (LSI) of over tens of thousand of transistors and diodes on a single chip. The achievements of the Integrated circuit technology led to even faster, more reliable, cheap and small-sized computers, whose powers were multiple of those of the earlier generations. In deed, this generation of computers gave birth to the mini computers, whose power of operation was more than the earlier generation, greater reliability and speed, yet was far less in size and in cost. They could do hundred times as many calculations per second and hundred times faster than their second-generation counterparts could. Examples: IBM 31360 - 31370 series, CDC 6600, 7600, Boroughs B5000 and PDP II series.

The Fourth Generation Computers (VLSIC Micro Technology
The very large-scale integrated circuit (VLSIC), made possible by the micro technology of the period 1971-1982 ushered in the fourth generation of computers. VLSIC has between 5,000 and 50,000 gates (transistors), upon which micro-processors were built. The effect of this technology was smaller and smaller but more and more powerful computers whose speed and reliability trivialized those of the earlier generations. This era also produced the micro-computers that could do the job of first generation large computers with thousand of times faster speed and affordable prices even by individual. This generation also produced a wide variety of software packages like word processing packages, graphics, games, spreadsheet packages and database management systems. Networking capabilities were also enhanced in this era. Examples of the fourth generation computers include the IBM 3033, HP 3000 mini computers, Apple II, Boroughs B7700.

Fifth Generation Computers (Era of Artificial Intelligence)
The technology of this generation of computers is characterized by Super Large Scale Integration (ULSI), Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), parallel processing, Artificial Intelligence, Speech Processing, Pattern Recognition and Expert System. The distinguishing characteristics of this generation of computer are their tremendous speed and power. Continuous miniaturization of computers is the order of the day, newer, smaller, more powerful computers are seen day by day. Powerful microcomputers have today dwarfed the capability of the older days mainframe. Pentium II mother board with clock speed higher than 300 MHz and hard disk storage space over 20 Gigabytes with unbelievable capabilities, are now affordable by even low income earners. Networking, ranging from local, wide area to Internets are the common features of this generation of computers and has reduced the whole world into a global village.

Computer Appreciation For Beginners (Part 1)

By Emmanuel Effiong

Resource information about Traveling, Car, Shopping, Computer and Finance


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Find the History of a Person

Find out about some of the services that you can use to find history of a person from the following article. There are a number of ways that you can go about this search and some ideas that you can try are mentioned here.

If you want to find history of a person you can trace them through all the places that they have been. You can start as far back as high school. Find people who knew this person during that period and talk to them, find out what they know. From there you can trace the person through college or university. You can talk to former students and lecturers of this person.

\"history Search\"

If you want to find history of a person you can also follow their professional career. Talk to some of this person's former and current colleagues and they should be able to give you something. Talk to friends, family relatives; if you want to remain anonymous find someone to do it for you. Of course there is only so much information that you can get from people.

The other option that you have if you want to find history of a person is try some of the online resources. There are some people finder sites that have access to a lot of people profile information. You can look up these sites, particularly the ones that have public records in their database. If you want to find out about someone's past or carry out background checks on people these are the best finders to use.

Find the History of a Person

Others who read this also visited: Google People Search How-to-Guide. Also See: Find people's Information free here.

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Free Arrest Warrant Search - Have I Got Active Arrest Warrants?

Do you think that you might have an arrest warrant?

Are you looking for a free arrest warrant search because you think that there might be an active arrest warrant issued for you? Do you think that you have done something wrong or are you worried that you might have a warrant through no fault of your own?

\"history Search\"

If you know that you've committed a crime then you know that there is a good chance that a warrant has been issued on you. If this is the case then your best course of action is to get a lawyer and hand yourself in. If you don't then you are going to have to live the life of an outlaw.

You might have a warrant for silly reasons, like forgetting to turn up in court or failing to pay a fine for something. If this happens then you most likely have collected a Bench Warrant. It's the same as an arrest warrant as far as you are concerned, it will get you arrested just the same.

You can end up with a warrant even when you haven't done anything wrong. The police only have to think that you are involved in a crime and they can get a warrant for you. Someone might even be impersonating you when they committed the crime and the police have details of your identity instead of the criminals.

Do nothing and get a free arrest warrant search

You could just ignore the fact that you might have an arrest warrant. Sooner or later you will get stopped for some minor traffic offence or routine inspection. When this happens the police will reward you by doing a free warrant search for you. If they find that you have a warrant they will most likely arrest you right there.

You don't have to wait to be stopped by the police. You could just go to them and ask if you have any warrants. They will do a warrant search for free but again, they are likely to arrest you if the search finds an active warrant.

Free warrant searches at the courthouse

Do you know which county your warrants were issued in? You should know this if you forgot to turn up in court for instance. If so then you can go to the county courthouse and ask. This should be free in most cases and it won't get you arrested unless the warrant is for something very serious. You have to go to the right courthouse for this to work though. They will probably not be able to search other county records for you.

If you aren't sure which county the warrant is in then you could try state records. Most counties feed their records up to the state but the process can be slow and sometimes not very reliable. To be on the safe side you should check warrant records at the county and state level.

Search for free arrest warrants in public records

Arrest warrants are public records and there are some web sites that are making it their business to collect all publicly available records from across the nation into a huge database. They then organize the data and make it all available to you for easy searching nationwide.

These public records web sites are very effective at finding information about people fast and it's not just arrest warrants either. You can search for criminal records and all sorts of background information. You can also do the search on anyone you want to, not just yourself.

Depending on which public records web site you use, you can either pay a small fee for each search that you do or, you can pay a small monthly subscription and do as many free arrest warrant searches as you want to. You can search nationwide and background check practically anyone.

Free Arrest Warrant Search - Have I Got Active Arrest Warrants?

Read this comparative review of two respected and very effective public records web sites - Absolutely Free Background Checks - Choose the one that's right for you.

Unlimited Free Background Searches
Get started doing unlimited free arrest warrant searches today.

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Jackie Kennedy's Engagement Rings and Jewelry Collection

Jackie Kennedys Engagement Ring and Jewelry Collection: There are not enough words to describe one of the most memorable lady's in United States history. We now fondly refer to her as Jackie O, and she is remembered mostly as the beautiful young bride of the United States thirty-fifth president. When one calls her image to mind, we see a beautiful woman with poise, grace, and flawless style. There were many women that tried to emulate the way that the First lady dressed and wore her hair.Jacqueline was married twice and received two magnificent engagement rings. John F. Kennedy proposed with a ring that his father actually selected. This incredible ring consisted of a 2.88 carat diamond mounted next to a 2.84 carat emerald and tapering baguettes. The ring was reset with round diamonds, totaling 0.66 carat, and marquise diamonds, totaling 1.46 carats, in 1962. The second ring is probably the most well known of Jacqueline's jewelry pieces, but also it was worn the least. Aristotle Onassis presented her with a 40 carat marquise Lesotho III diamond ring when she agreed to marry him. The diamond was one of eighteen diamonds cut from the 601 carat rough diamond, the Lesotho, which was displayed at both the Smithsonian and the Museum of Natural History in New York before being cut into eighteen different diamonds. Rumor has it that Jacqueline only wore the ring two times and then had it locked up in a New York bank vault.

Jacqueline's flawless sense of style did not just include her clothing; it also extended to her extensive jewelry collection. She preferred big, colorful necklaces and bracelets from Van Cleef & Arpel. Her jewelry collection consisted of but is by no means limited to the following:

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o A 47 carat Kunzite stone bordered by twenty round diamond. President Kennedy bought this for his beautiful wife, however, due to his untimely death he was not able to give it to her.

o A Cabochon ruby and diamond pendant with matching clip earrings that were a wedding gift from Aristotle.

o A 17.68 carat ruby ring.

o A Cabochon ruby necklace.

o A pair of dangling Cabochon ruby earrings.

o A lovely amethyst necklace that had graduated drops.

o A pair of red tourmaline briolette earrings that were suspended from amethysts.

o A 19th century cabochon garnet flower brooch.

o A fascinating small scarecrow pin in gold with gems.

o A double strand black stone necklace. Jacqueline wore this piece the day that her husband, John F. Kennedy, announced his candidacy for president.

While the above list in no way represents the vast collection that Jacqueline owned, it is representative of what she was accustomed to and represented her wonderful sense of style and beauty.

Many brides of today are modeling their wedding day appearance after the beautiful Jackie O. From her simple but elegant style of dressing, her classically beautiful hair style, to her lavishly gorgeous gems, Jackie O is the look that many woman, bride or not, desire. In today's high tech world it is easier than ever to search a vast variety of stores to find inexpensive look-a-like items, especially jewelry items that resemble hers.

Jackie Kennedy's Engagement Rings and Jewelry Collection

The author just celebrated her one year anniversary and sports a beautiful ascher cut ring. She and her husband put together the website: to help you find the perfect ring.

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Craft Ideas For Kids - Kids and Pasta

Pasta is not just for tomato sauce. My kids loved pasta for many different art projects. Next time you find a sale on pasta grab several varieties. Here are just a few ideas of what kids can make with pasta.

Photo frames - We use either the bow pasta or the shell pasta. Start with thick cardboard. I tend to use white so that we can add any color we want. Your frame can either be circular or square. Cut out the frame, this is the actual full size you'll want at the end. Then cut out the middle to fit the size of the photo you want to put in there.

\"history For Kids\"

Now decide if you want to spray paint the pasta or use food coloring. Gold metallic spray paint looks great. We have also made various colors of pasta and made rainbow frames.

If you want to turn your frame into a magnet, add some magnetic tape to the back.

Necklaces and Bracelets - Penne pasta and macaroni noodles make wonderful necklaces and bracelets. I suggest fishing line. It just doesn't break. As with the frames, you can use multiple colors of pasta by adding food dye or you can spray paint the pasta, allow to dry and then string the pasta onto your fishing line.

Decorative Jars - Save empty jars. Then fill the far with an assortment of shapes and colors of pasta. These jars make pretty decorations for bathrooms, bedrooms or even end tables.

Pipe Cleaner Figurines - Grab a pipe cleaner. Now arrange pasta on the pipe cleaner to create people and animals. Mix and match shapes and sizes and then bend to create almost anything.

Self Portraits - Use spaghetti and linguini. Boil just until soft. Then press the pasta onto construction paper into a self portrait. You can also create landscape scenes using the soft long noodles.

These are just a few ideas of how to use pasta to create great art projects made by kids.

Craft Ideas For Kids - Kids and Pasta

Audrey Okaneko is mom to two girls. She can be reached at or visited at

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Common Causes of Heart Attack

Causes of heart attack have made people dumbfounded as heart attack is the chief cause of sudden deaths in the universe today. Heart attacks are responsible for most sudden deaths around the world today. It manifests commonly as sudden collapse and eventual death during strenuous exercise in a healthy looking man or woman. Heart attack is no respecter of persons, colour or gender. There have been cases of heart diseases in the world today.

Causes of heart attack have remained mysterious to some people. The instances of sudden deaths of international athletes such as Florence Griffith Joyner, the fastest woman sprinter of all time died suddenly at the age of 38 of heart disease. It was a shocking news to Americans on September 21, 1998 as the sprinter was in sound health. Similar cases of heart disease have been recorded in the world history. In 2002, a Cameroonian player died suddenly during the confederation cup semi finals in France. Heart attack killed him.

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What is the definition of heart disease one may ask. Firstly, think of the heart as a pumping machine that pushes blood through a series of pipes called the blood vessels in order to provide oxygen to various tissues, including the heart muscle itself. The arteries that supply blood to the heart itself are called coronary arteries. If there is damage to the heart arteries over a period of time, it is called coronary artery disease or simply heart disease. On the other hand, if there is sudden blockage of the heart artery, the oxygen supply to the affected part of the heart muscle may be partly or completely cut off. The latter which may lead to sudden death is called heart disease.

Common Causes of Heart Attack

For further reading on the best preventive and treatment measures to be adopted to say goodbye to heart disease forever, I strongly recommend Heart Disease Home Ready For you. This emerged first after a thorough research was conducted on the possible means to tackle heart disease. To Read this Heart Disease Home Remedy, Click the link below:

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Religion In Ancient Greece

In ancient Greece, the society was based on religion. There are many Greek gods and you may know many of them without even realizing it. Most of the planets in our solar system are named after Greek gods. For example, Uranus is named after one of two founding gods of the world and was revered by the ancient Greeks.

Religion in ancient Greece was based on belief. And, each even had a god associated with it. That is how there were gods of love, war, sea, farming and so on and so forth. The ancient Greeks believed that the gods were physically and intellectually similar to the mortals. The ancient Greek gods were presumed to have emotions and that is why Greek mythology is filled with tales of revenge, greed, jealousy and wars among gods.

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Zeus was the King of Gods and the gods fought and planned for dominance either under Zeus or against him. The ancient Greeks believed that their gods resided on Mount Olympus and the gods came into power after defeating the Titans, who were gods before the Olympian gods.

The relationship between the ancient Greeks and their gods was rather complicated. The relationship was personal, geographical or general. In personal relationship with gods, a person interacted directly with the god. In geographical relationship, a god favored a city or state over another city or state. The ancient Greeks believed that the gods decided their fate so with was futile to have freewill or try and outwit the gods. This would explain the sacrifices and gifts the people of ancient Greece would offer to gods if they sought some form of assistance from them. For instance, a sea voyage was never undertaken before making offering to Poseidon, god of sea and ocean.

As ancient Greece started interacting with other cultures through wars, religion started evolving. Religion in ancient Greece was impacted by Islam, Christianity and early Roman belief system which is evident even today in Greece.

Religion In Ancient Greece

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History Of Billy Idol, Causes Of World War 1 and Conflict And Compromise In America On World History

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The Best Tourist Spots in South Korea

The tourism industry in South Korea is an emerging industry and the country is fast becoming one of the hottest destinations to visit in the world. The Korean culture is gaining popularity in the United States and people are also exploring options to visit the country.

Seoul is the capital of the country and is just like any other cosmopolitan city bustling with people. It has a rich blend of modern and traditional culture that offers so much to the intrepid traveler.

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The best tourist spots in South Korea to visit are Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Ulsan, Jeju, Sokcho, Suwon and Andong. These cities are rich in natural history, cuisine, culture and also sports. Seoul is a popular Olympics destination and is popular all over the world. The tourism population was very high during the Olympics games and this trend is still continuing.

The caves in Danyang are very popular and the beaches in Haeundae and Mallipo are also popular attractions. Other than these there are several cultural festivals which include sports like bull fighting which are gaining popularity in Korea. People visiting from the United States do not need visa for tourism purpose in South Korea.

The most famous landmarks in South Korea are the Serok- San and Jiri San along with the Baekdudaegan, which are all natural landmarks. Since these names are very difficult to remember, it is always advisable to purchase a proper guide book and travel around South Korea. The guide book along with its maps will help you come up with an easy holiday itinerary so that you can enjoy all the best tourist spots in South Korea.

The Best Tourist Spots in South Korea

Pauline Go is an online leading expert in travel industry. She also offers top quality articles like :

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10 Places in Europe to Visit This Summer

Europe is so rich in culture and each country is so diverse that sometimes it can be hard to know where to visit in Europe, with so many wonderful choices. Below we give you ten ideas for places to visit this summer in Europe.

1. Vienna is a place will is certain to be popular this summer with Austria and Switzerland hosting the Euro 2008 football tournament. Vienna (or Wien as it is known locally) is the capital of Austria and is certain to be lively and it is a pleasant place in its own right to visit. The city can be lively and has some decent museums and galleries and is small and easy to move around in.

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2. Barcelona is always a good city to visit and in the summer, as long as you avoid the hottest month, which is August, Barcelona is a great place to visit and has some excellent sites worth visiting including the Sagrada Familia, the marina and Guell Park. Barcelona is a perfect long weekend destination and in the summer months there is a good possibility of fine weather.

3. Dublin is a lively city even in the middle of winter, with bars and pubs full of people having a good time. As well as excellent pubs, Dublin is not a bad place for shopping, live music and theatre and museums.

4. Venice, Italy is a favourite of many and a visit to St.Mark's Square or along the river in a gondola is a one off experience. If you are interested in churches and architecture this is your city.

5. London is simply excellent for musems, galleries and many other attractions. A visit to the British Museum, the Natural History Museum or the like, will keep you busy for days. There are also many fine restaurants and some decent pubs in the capital.

6. Helsinki in Finland is not everyone's first choice for destination but Helsinki is an interesting city to visit in summer time. Time it well and you can experience the two to three weeks when it barely gets dark at night and when many Finns party around the clock.

7. Cap D'agde in France is a town rather than a city and it is an eye opener literally with tens of thousands of nudists letting themselves get an all over tan in what is the world largest nudist village and resort. You can shop, get a haircut, swim, eat and do much more without wearing a stitch.

8. Paris, France is of course also well worth a visit and the Louvre and the Champs Elysees are two attractions than one immediately thinks of and which are certainly worth seeing.

9. Athens in Greece is a must for fans of architecture and history. Athens is a city rich in history and Athens mixed with a few days on the Greek islands can be a great way to spend a week or two.

10. Lisbon, Portugal is one of the smaller European capital cities and is an interesting city to visit. Lisbon similar to Athens, has some interesting architecture and history. This is mixed with the modern which includes a state of the art shopping mall near fans park.

10 Places in Europe to Visit This Summer

Pablo Michaels writes about French camping and French travel and culture.

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Zulu Musical Instruments, Essential To Develop Musical Traditions In Africa

African music is the music of Africans who live in a large region of 50 nations, each with a special culture, history and language, South of Sahara. Zulu musical instruments are part of this multilingual culture. African music has some distinct characteristics: the use of repetition is one of them. Another important characteristic is the polyphony; this is the combination of different musical parts played simultaneously.

The history is marked by the awesome military strategies of the Zulu King Shaka. The King's and his warriors' campaign of expansion is well known in world history. Zulu rich traditional culture includes songs, dances and colorful rituals, Zulu musical instruments are spectacular and original. A variety of Zulu musical instruments are well known, s well as the traditional Mine dance; Zulus have longtime used their music as a cry for freedom.

\"world History\"

African music is really rich in modes of expression: drum ensembles are using Zulu musical instruments from the percussion family. Each drummer uses special methods to produce sounds to distinguish his drum from the others. Iron bells are very popular Zulu musical instruments; they are used to produce a repeated sound to help the drummers to play at the correct time.

Zulu musical instruments, rare and very special

The akadinda is a king of xylophone; two groups of African musicians are playing simultaneously. The first group is playing repeatedly the same pattern; the second group plays to fill in the missing sounds. Groups of Zulu musicians play also using flutes, trumpets or xylophones. Each player plays a single note in a strange rotation with the other players. The result is a polyphonic piece, characteristic to African music.

Musical practices of South African people were observed from many years; Zulu musical instruments are obsolete. Venda mbila is an old Zulu musical instrument; it is not used anymore. Reed flutes, contrary, are still very popular. The influence of foreign cultures and civilizations causes many of old Zulu musical instruments to become obsolete.

Musical instruments such as tsonga - a horn, ingungu - a friction drum, nkoka - a drum, pedi - a flute, venda - musical bow and stick, deze and demba - thumb piano and resonatos, umfece - ankle rattles are almost obsolete.

To preserve this awesome heritage of Zulu musical instruments, the necessary information was entered into a database; each Zulu musical instrument was digitally photographed to preserve all information about it.

Zulu Musical Instruments, Essential To Develop Musical Traditions In Africa

Learn more about information about musical instruments by visiting our free site. You'll also learn how to buy musical instruments

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12 Free Things To Do In Pigeon Forge & Gatlinburg, Tennessee (And Still Have A Blast!)

In the breathtaking state of Tennessee you'll find the picturesque Smoky Mountains. Both Pigeon Forge, Tennessee and Gatlinburg, Tennessee are great places to visit for fantastic indoor and outdoor fun! A vacation to the Smoky Mountains is perfect too, because there are so many things to do in the Smoky Mountains. Even better, there are plenty of FREE things to do in the Smoky Mountains!

The natural outdoor allure of the Smoky Mountain destinations of Pigeon Forge and Gatlinburg is easy to understand. With the Great Smoky Mountains National Park as their backyard, these two vacation destinations allow guests to discover what they've been missing...refreshing, all natural fun!

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  1. Cades Cove: This is a great area for a scenic drive! There is an 11 mile one way loop that winds around the valley, complete with wildlife, campgrounds, bike rentals, spectacular foliage in autumn, and facilities for horseback riding.
  2. Sugarlands Visitor Center: A free 20-minute orientation motion picture provides an in-depth look at the Smokies and the enormous diversity of plant and animal life in the Park. Natural history exhibits include mounted specimens of park animals in recreations of their habitats and reproductions of journals kept by the first park naturalists are also on display. Ranger talks and slide shows are presented daily from spring through fall. You'll also want to visit Laurel Falls, a beautiful waterfall located off Little Rover Road near the Sugarlands Center.
  3. Mills Park: Located in Gatlinburg, this park's facilities include a softball field, horseshoe pits, playground, tennis courts, football field and basketball court. It's a great place for families to enjoy the outdoors!
  4. Mynatt Park: A beautiful park complete with picnic area by the river, bbq grills, and recreation opportunities such as baseball and basketball.
  5. Tennessee Heritage Trails: Our Heritage Trails link attractions in three categories - History, Arts & Crafts and Music - to showcase the distinctive character and talents of Tennessee trails and to connect both well-known and obscure attractions under a common theme.
  6. Great Smoky Mountains Arts and Craft Community: The largest group of independent artisans in North America. This historic 8-mile loop has been designated a Tennessee Heritage Arts & Crafts Trail. Established in 1937, these artisans create unique and treasured pieces.
  7. Newfound Gap Road: The 33-mile drive from Gatlinburg to Cherokee North Carolina along Newfound Gap Road is the only route that completely traverses the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The drive offers a unique opportunity to enjoy an abbreviated experience of everything the Park has to offer, without necessarily trekking far from your automobile.
  8. Hiking: Enjoy a hike on any of the more than 800 miles of trails through the Great Smoky Mountain National Park. With over fifty trails available to hike, you'll discover a new treasure each time you explore.
  9. Douglas Lake: Beautiful Douglas Lake extends its 33,000 lake acres and 513 miles of shoreline to the rolling hills of the Great Smoky Mountains, attracting nearly 2 million visitors each year. Favorite activities at Douglas Lake include fishing, boating, rafting, swimming, camping, and bird watching.
  10. Shopping in the Smokies: Pigeon Forge and Gatlinburg are a shopper's dream and it doesn't cost a thing to look! There are several Outlet malls, such as Belz Factory Outlet Mall, as well as hundreds of unique shops to explore.
  11. Festivals: Pigeon Forge and Gatlinburg are a haven for festivals. Many of these, such as the Bloomin' Barbeque & Bluegrass Festival, have free admission and concerts!
  12. Plus, at Dollywood, you can get your next day FREE if you arrive at the park after 3 pm!

With so many things to see and do in the beautiful Smoky Mountains, you and your family are sure to experience the vacation of a lifetime. Pigeon Forge, Tennessee and Gatlinburg, Tennessee are within miles of each other, so you can easily experience both cities in the same trip.

12 Free Things To Do In Pigeon Forge & Gatlinburg, Tennessee (And Still Have A Blast!)

Author's Note: To see this article with website links to the above-referenced destinations, please visit this article on the News & Info Weblog.

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Key Concepts, Part II: Discovery Procedures in Divorce

In Part I of this series on key discovery concepts, we presented the basic steps involved in most divorce cases. We also described some of the disclosures required by the Arizona Rules of Family Law Procedure (ARFLP). In this article, we'll introduce a few more discovery tools. Namely interrogatories, depositions, requests for production, and requests for admission.

Tool of Discovery: Interrogatories


Simply stated, interrogatories are written questions served on the other party. There are uniform and non-uniform interrogatories. Uniform interrogatories are in court-approved form, for general use in any case. Questions specific to a particular case, outside the scope of the standard form, are non-uniform interrogatories. The parties send one another these written questions to be answered. An interrogatory may be objected to, for example when the question is asking for undiscoverable privileged information.

Why Do We Use Interrogatories?

Interrogatories help the parties focus on factual information and help establish the validity of documents. These questions are tailored to ask for very specific, factual information to avoid overly vague or incomplete answers. Interrogatories help collect each party's statistics, financial details, employment history and income, criminal arrest or conviction details, and the like. Besides the primary function of finding out information, the answers to the interrogatories can be read in court as admissions by the answering party.

Each party must answer the questions in writing truthfully under oath. As a very useful discovery tool, interrogatories are used along with depositions, discussed below. The primary difference being that, unlike depositions, only parties in the case answer interrogatories.

Tool of Discovery: Depositions

In a deposition, the witness is required to appear at a specified location for the purpose of providing information regarding some matter in the litigation. Unlike the interrogatory, the deposition may also be used for third parties. It is possible to compel the witness to bring along documents or other items to the deposition. The deposition may be introduced at trial to impeach that witness with any inconsistent statements that he or she made.

What Happens When the Opposing Party is Deposed?

Oath.At the deposition, the opposing party appears with counsel, is placed under oath, and is asked questions by the attorney for the party seeking the testimony. Although depositions are usually oral, they may sometimes be written. They may even be video recorded.

Objections. The deposed party's attorney can't coach the witness, but may properly object to any questions that are posed to the witness.

Court Reporter.A record of the deposition must be made for evidentiary purposes. Usually, a court reporter is there to record the questions asked, the answers given, and any objections made. An official deposition transcript is then prepared. The deposed party witness has an opportunity to review the transcript and make corrections.

Tool of Discovery: Request for Production

The request for production of documents and things, and entry upon land for inspection and other purposes, is a very powerful discovery tool. Essentially, requests can be made for anything in the possession or control of a party upon whom the request is made. A request for production allows one party to request that the opposing party produce tangible evidence for the purpose of inspection and copying, and much more.

The request for production may permit the requesting party to enter the property to inspect the premises.Again, the party receiving the request may file an appropriate objection. For example, objecting because the documents requested are not relevant to the family law case.

Tool of Discovery: Request for Admission

The request for admission of facts is also served on the opposing party in the divorce case. The request for admission sets forth statements that the receiving party must admit, deny, or object to. The party responding to the request for admission has to make reasonable inquiries into the information that is known to, or readily obtainable by, him or her. When the receiving party does not respond to a request for admission - that is, offers no admission, no denial, and no objection - then the statement is deemed admitted. Whenever a statement is admitted to, it may be used as evidence in the trial.

How Are Discovery Requests Enforced?

The subpoena orders a person to appear, testify, produce and permit inspection, copying, testing, sampling, and so on, of tangible things in the possession, custody, or control of that person. The subpoena may order the person to permit inspection of the premises, at a specified time and place.

A party and the party's attorney may be sanctioned by the court for failing to comply or respond to a discovery request. They may be held in contempt for failure to obey orders and sanctioned at the court's discretion for engaging in conduct that was abusive, groundless, obstructionist, or unreasonable. Any refusal to comply with a discovery request can have serious consequences.

Key Concepts, Part II: Discovery Procedures in Divorce

Scott David Stewart is an attorney practicing family law in greater Phoenix, Arizona. He is AV Rated by Martindale Hubbell, has a perfect AVVO Score of 10.0/superb, and is a member of the State Bar of Arizona, American Bar Association-Family law Section, and Maricopa County Bar Association-Family Law Section. Prior to forming the Law Offices of Scott David Stewart, he worked as Deputy County Attorney for the Maricopa County Attorney's Office where he honed his trial skills and developed strategies for success that he continues to use and implement in his law firm today. His experience as prosecutor opened his eyes to the need for passionate legal representation for children during divorce proceedings. Children's voices and needs are often relegated behind the desires of their parents. Stewart's number one goal is to ensure that children are the focal point of any dispute between parents.

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Romantic Birthday Ideas For Him

Your beloved's birthday is a very special time. After all, you're celebrating the fact that they are here, in the world, for you to love! What could be more important than that?

Finding a romantic birthday idea can be difficult. You don't want to do the usual dinner and roses and massage route, right? Here are a few options that might make this next birthday the one she will never, ever forget.

\"world History\"

Create a Timeline. Start with the day of her birth and find something in world history that matches up to it. For example, was anything invented on the day she was born? Did something great happen? Make a timeline of all the good things that happened on every single birthday she had celebrated. On the last birthday -- the one you are celebrating now -- make a note of something momentous. Perhaps it's the day you get down on one knee?

Have a Dessert Dinner. Many restaurants love to offer free dessert for birthdays. Why not make a game of it? Call ahead and ask the restaurants of your choice if they have objections to your plan. You will pay for your own dessert, while your date gets hers on the house, as well as hearing "Happy Birthday" sung to her over and over throughout the night. How sweet and romantic is that?

Plan a Surprise Party. This might seem like an old standby, but there's a twist: If you can hold off on meeting your beloved's friends until her big day, then you're in luck! The point is to show her how much you adore her by taking the initiative, contacting her friends, and inviting them to the party. You know she wants you to meet them all, but if you take the plunge on your own, she will realize how much she means to you. So it's time to find her best friend's phone number!

Create a Playlist of Her Life. For every important period in your life, it's a sure bet that music was a part of it. Why not show your love how much she means to you by tracking down the song that was number one on each of her birthdays? Put them all on a CD and present it to her as a trip down memory lane. How many do you think she will remember fondly?

Make it Public. Make your love clear to everyone. Write "Happy Birthday" in the sky, put it on a billboard, or post a banner at her workplace. As long as you don't mention her age, you're good to go!

Romantic Birthday Ideas For Him

Get more Romantic Ideas and learn how to be romantic at

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10 Dollar Payday Loans - Small, Short & Comfortable Loans

If one terms 10 dollar payday loans as short and comfortable loans, it won't be incorrect. "Comfortable loans" may sound like an oxymoron to you, as one usually associates loans with long verification process, credit checks and an endless waiting before sanction. However, no credit ten dollar cash advance comes with no-check on the person's credit history. One may even be bankrupt to get this loan. All that one requires is an employment and identity proof.

Therefore, if you one of those who get into a cash crunch usually in the mid of the month, then ten dollar payday loan is the answer for you. With this form of cash advance you do not have to worry about long verification processes or faxing documents to the bank.


Important Interest Rate Process
10 dollar payday loan works very differently from the traditional loans. As is obvious from their name, they are known as ten dollar payday loans because one pays for every 0 that is borrowed. However, this interest rate does not work the same way if one wants to roll over one's loan. It is much higher if you roll over! Hence, it is highly advisable to pay off the borrowed amount on time and then apply for a fresh one.

Though, most of the time, paying back on time is also not feasible. One might need to roll over the borrowed amount to next month. In such cases, the annual percentage rate on a typical fourteen day loan may work out to be anywhere around 782%. Thus, the actual cost of payday cash advance works out to be a whooping for every 0 that you borrow!

Now, ideally this is a situation that you would want to avoid. Hence, as mentioned earlier, pay back the borrowed amount in time. Else, instead of being a help they might become a liability. Who knows, you might even have to take another cash advance in order to pay them off.

Also, by paying on time, you can keep your credit history clear with these cash advances, and that, you will find actually works out as the best financial solution for your mid month cash crunch. As long as you take control of your finances, and take ten dollar payday loans as just a support system, you should be quite comfortable with them.

10 Dollar Payday Loans - Small, Short & Comfortable Loans

10 dollar payday loans are the best alternative for individuals who need urgent cash to solve their financial problem. These advance cash are readily available. Visit Ten Dollar Payday Loan to apply for a payday loan today.

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The End of Pompeii and Herculaneum (August 24-25, A.D. 79) Part 1 of 3

It was approximately 1 PM and lunchtime in Pompeii and Herculaneum when Mt. Vesuvius’ 19 hours of sustained eruptions began that left both towns buried in volcanic ash and rock, and frozen in time. By the end of Vesuvius’ massive eruption, more than 2,000 people had perished even though there had been sufficient time for everyone to flee. Although the actual death toll is not known since some victims perished in flight and others were swept into the Bay during the tsunami, the remains of 1,150 persons have been recovered in and around Pompeii, 350 victims in Herculaneum[1] and two on a road north of Pompeii.[2]

When Vesuvius rumbled to life sending a series of tremors days in advance, the people of Pompeii and Herculaneum, located at the mountain’s foot, were not concerned. Many were used to earthquakes, they “were lulled into a false sense of security because of the volcano’s long dormancy”[3] and/or did not realize that Vesuvius was a volcano because it had been dormant for many generations; “its slopes were covered with orchards, vineyards, and olive groves.”[4] Furthermore since the Campania region had experienced a strong earthquake in A.D. 62 that caused significant damage to both sister towns and minor quakes in A.D. 64 and A.D. 70 with no volcanic eruptions, the residents of Pompeii and Herculaneum believed they could ride out the current series of weak tremors in the safety of their homes. They did not realize that the A.D. 62 quake had possibly been caused by “a fracturing of Vesuvius’ edifice by flowing magma” and the A.D. 64 quake and [A.D. 70 ‘seismic swarm’ (series of tremors)][5] by the continued “shifting of magma” some 3 miles below the surface.[6] In addition, many did not view Vesuvius as a threat – “In the House of the Centenary (IX-8-5), a lararium (“in an ancient Roman home, a shrine for the Lares, the spirits who, if appeased, watched over the house or community to which they belonged”[7]) fresco found in the servant’s quarters [portrayed] Bacchus, represented with a bunch of grapes, a thyrsus (“a staff surmounted by a pinecone or by a bunch of vine or ivy leaves with grapes or berries”[8]) and a panther, in front of [Vesuvius] entirely covered with vineyards. The mountain was viewed as the home of this god of festivity and prosperity, and… Pompeiians never considered it to be dangerous.”[9] Accordingly they went on with their daily routines without giving the mountain much thought, even though previous writings indicated that it was a volcano.

\"natural History\"

Roman architect Vitruvius (c. 70 B.C.-c. 25 B.C.) wrote in Book II of De Architectura “…that the fires [of Vesuvius] were stronger in the past and that the plentiful flames within the mountain had emerged and burned fields thereabouts. It is for this reason that the rock called ‘sponge’ or ‘Pompeiian pumice’ seems to have been formed from some other sort of rock by the heat,”[10] while Greek writer Diodorus Siculus (c. 90 B.C.-c. 30 B.C.) wrote in Book IV of Bibliotheca Historica that “the Campanian plain was called ‘Phlegrean’ (fiery) because of… Vesuvius which had spouted flame like Etna and showed signs of the fire that had burnt in ancient history,” and Greek historian and geographer, Strabo (4 B.C.-A.D. 24) wrote of Vesuvius and its surroundings in Book V, Chapter IV of Geographica – “Mt. Vesuvius dominates this region [Campania]. All but its summit is clad in exceptionally fine fields. The summit itself is mostly flat, and entirely barren. The soil looks like ash, and there are cave-like pits of blackened rock, looking gnawed by fire. This area appears to have been on fire in the past and to have had craters of flame… No doubt this is the reason for the fertility of the surrounding area, as at Catana, where they say that soil filled with the ash thrown up by Etna’s flames makes the land particularly good for vines.”[11] Even the fact that the “Phlegrean (Fiery) Fields” located some 20 miles away consisted of “smoke-filled caverns and volcanic geysers,”[12] Roman poet Publius Papinius Statius’ (A.D. 45-A.D. 96) wrote, “I am eager to move you… [even though] Vesuvius and that baleful mountain’s storm of fire have not completely drained the frightened cities of their folk…”[13] in a letter to his wife in Book III, Chapter V of Silvae and Silius Italicus (c. A.D. 25-A.D. 101) wrote "Vesuvius… thundered, hurling flames worthy of Etna from her cliffs; and the fiery crest, throwing rocks up to the clouds, reached the trembling stars"[14] in his epic poem, “Punica” about the volcano’s last known eruption in 217 B.C. eruption, people were not convinced.

On the eve of the eruption, Campania was an idyllic region, “…plainly the handiwork of Nature in her favorite spot!”[15] in the words of Roman admiral, historian, philosopher, and naturalist Gaius Plinius Secundas known as Pliny The Elder (A.D. 23-A.D. 79) who perished during Vesuvius’ eruption. “Campania [is] a region blessed by fortune. From this bay (Bay of Naples) onwards you find vine-growing hills and a noble tipple of wine famed throughout the world. Over this area the gods of wine and grain fought their hardest, or so tradition tells us. The territories for Setine wine and Caecuban begin here; beyond these lie Falernum and Calenum. Then come the Massic Mountains, and those of Gauranum and Surrentum. There lie spread the fields of Lebroinum with their fine harvest of grain. These shores are watered by warm springs; they are famed beyond any other for their shellfish and their fine fish. Nowhere do olives produce more oil – the production strives to match the demands of human pleasure.”[16] At this time, Pompeii with a population of about 20,000 was a “commercial and agricultural center” and an upper class neighborhood in the midst of an election campaign while Herculaneum, with a population of about 5,000 was a resort favored by wealthy Romans that consisted of an amphitheatre that could seat 16,000 people, “dozens of taverns, magnificent brothels and lavishly appointed baths.”[17] Both, though mostly rebuilt, were still undergoing construction to repair the affects of the devastating A.D. 62 quake which in the words of Lucius Annaeus Seneca (c. 4 B.C.-A.D. 65), emperor Nero’s administrator, “laid down Pompeii, made great ruins in Herculaneum and caused minor damage in Nuceria and Naples, where the emperor Nero was performing in the theatre. …the earthquakes lasted for several days until they became milder ‘but still caused great damage.’”[18] Evidence of ongoing repairs consisted of a “plastered” cracked oven, the mending of previously damaged buildings, digging of three cesspits linking latrines to houses, an open trench for a water tower and “heaps of plaster.”[19]

Seneca also wrote in a letter: “Pompeii, so they tell me, has collapsed in an earthquake. It is a well-known city in Campania, with Surrentum and Stabiae on one side and Herculaneum on the other. The coastline here pulls back from the open sea and shelters Pompeii in a pleasant bay. Some areas near Pompeii were shaken as well. The earthquake occurred during the winter, though it had always been said that the winter was not the dangerous time of year. But it was on the fifth of February in 62 that this earthquake devastated Campania. The area never safe from this sort of danger, but it had escaped damage and outlived the scare many times before. Parts of Herculaneum collapsed, and those that remain standing are insecure, while the colony at Nuceria, though not devastated, has plenty to lament. In Naples the disaster struck pretty lightly. Many private buildings were lost, but no public ones. Some villas fell down. Everything shook, but for the most part it did no damage. Other effects: a flock of 600 sheep perished, statues shattered, and some people went mad and wandered about out of control”[20] while Publius Cornelius Tacitus, a Roman Historian (A.D. 56-A.D. 117) made mention of the earthquake in The Annals, Book XV stating, “An earthquake… demolished a large part of Pompeii, a populous town in Campania.”[21]

The first indications of an impending eruption began on August 20, A.D. 79 when the Campania region was rattled by a series of mild earthquakes that were recounted by Roman historian Dio Cassius (A.D. 155-A.D. 235) in A.D. 203 Roman History, Epitome of Book LXVI – “The Eruption of Vesuvius that buried Pompeii” and Pliny the Younger (A.D. 62-A.D. 111), a 17-year-old witness to the catastrophic events who watched from Misenum, a town located about 13 miles northwest of Vesuvius on the other side of the Bay of Naples. Dio Cassius wrote: “…violent earthquakes occurred, so that the whole plain round about seethed and the summits leaped into the air. There were frequent rumblings, some of them subterranean, that resembled thunder, and some on the surface, that sounded like bellowings; the sea also joined in the roar and the sky re-echoed it”[22] while Pliny the Younger wrote: “There had been tremors for many days previously, a common occurrence in Campania and no cause for panic.”[23]

At this time no one was aware that a huge “magma layer” that resided below Vesuvius, stretching all the way to the Phlegrean Fields[24] “was forcing its way upwards into the feeder pipe of the volcano [as nearby] springs [suddenly] dried up…”[25] Intense pressure had been building up over the last 2000 years since the volcano’s last major eruption, the “Avellino” eruption in c. 1800 B.C. that “blanketed thousands of square miles northeast of [it, including the area comprising Naples], creating a bleak landscape of uninhabitable desert that lasted for more than 200 years.”[26]

Accordingly there was little concern as the people of Pompeii and Herculaneum were pursuing their usual daily activities when Mt. Vesuvius suddenly erupted. People sat down to eat, a family was baking bread, another was preparing to eat a snack of “nutmeats,” a baby took a nap in crib, gladiators were at the amphitheatre to train, residents attended a theater performance, a high-class prostitute decked in jewels solicited clients, people strolled the streets, some patronizing shops and outdoor food bars, workers used their tools to patch up damage from the reoccurring tremors, a homeowner cut the grass and a family dog was tied to a post in a courtyard.

Continued in Part 2 of 3

[1]Mount Vesuvius. 2006. 30 April, 2006.

[2]Jason Urbanus. More Vesuvius Victims. Newsbriefs March/April 2003. 5 May, 2006.

[3]Andrew Wallace-Hadrill. Pompeii: Portents of Disaster. 30 April, 2006.

[4]Nigel Cawthorne. 100 Catastrophic Disasters. (New York: Barnes & Noble Publishing, Inc., 2003) 150.

[5]Salvatore Nappo. Pompeii: A Guide to the Ancient City. (New York: Barnes & Noble Publishing, Inc., 1998), p. 13.

[6]AD 79 – Vesuvius explodes. 5 of May, 2006.

[7]infoplease® Dictionary. Random House, Inc. 1997. 8 May, 2006.

[8]Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2006. 8 May, 2006.

[9]Salvatore Nappo. Pompeii: A Guide to the Ancient City. (New York: Barnes & Noble Publishing, Inc., 1998), p. 11.

[10]Vitruvius. De Architectura, Book II. 1 May, 2006.

[11]Strabo. Geographica, Book V, Chapter IV. 1 May, 2006.

[12]Nigel Cawthorne. 100 Catastrophic Disasters. (New York: Barnes & Noble Publishing, Inc., 2003) 150.

[13]Publius Papinius Statius. Silvae, Book III Chapter V “Ad Uxorem.” 1 May 2006.

[14]Vesuvius A.D. 79. 1 May, 2006.

[15]Pliny. Natural History 3.40 and 3.60. 1 May, 2006.

[16]Pliny. Natural History 3.40 and 3.60. 1 May, 2006.

[17]Nigel Cawthorne. 100 Catastrophic Disasters. (New York: Barnes & Noble Publishing, Inc., 2003) 150.

[18]Larry Park and Marshall Masters. It is Time To Cast A Worried Eye Towards Yellowstone. 2006. 1 May, 2006.

[19]Andrew Wallace-Hadrill. Pompeii: Portents of Disaster. 30 April, 2006.

[20]Seneca Topics in Natural History 6.1. 1 May, 2006.

[21]P. Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals, Book XV AD 62-65. 2 May, 2006. []

[22]Dio Cassius. The Eruption of Vesuvius that buried Pompei, “Roman History Epitome of Book LXVI” (A.D. 203) 2 May, 2006. []*.html

[23]Pliny Letter 6.20. 30 April 2006.

[24]Ivan Noble. Massive magma layer feeds Vesuvius. November 15, 2001. 3 May, 2006.

[25]AD 79 – Vesuvius explodes. 5 of May, 2006.

[26]Ker Than. Vesuvius Could Destroy Naples, History Suggests. Live March 6, 2006. 2 May, 2006.

The End of Pompeii and Herculaneum (August 24-25, A.D. 79) Part 1 of 3

William Sutherland is a published poet and writer. He is the author of three books, "Poetry, Prayers & Haiku" (1999), "Russian Spring" (2003) and "Aaliyah Remembered: Her Life & The Person behind the Mystique" (2005) and has been published in poetry anthologies around the world. He has been featured in "Who's Who in New Poets" (1996), "The International Who's Who in Poetry" (2004), and is a member of the "International Poetry Hall of Fame."

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History of Friendship Bracelets

There are various theories for the origin and history of friendship bracelets, tracing the evolution of the simple bracelet making through macramé to the modern practice of making a pair of bracelets and giving one to a friend and wearing one yourself.

Modern friendship bracelets are generally made using macramé techniques, which is a process that uses knotting to make textiles. The use of knots differentiates macramé from knitting or weaving, which interlock different loops of material. Macramé is thought to have originated from Arabia in the thirteenth century, and was used to decorate items- this claim appears to be well supported by linguistics as the Arabic word "migramah" has strong connections with embroidery and decoration.

\"history For Kids\"

Also the spread of macramé supports an origination from Arabia, as naval trade was by the far most likely reason for the spread of this craft to other areas of the world such as China and Europe. Sailors would make embroidered items whilst passing time on long voyages, decorating possessions such as knife handles. Indeed the very nature of the knots used in macramé suggests that it was indeed practiced by sailors, as knots such as the half hitch are often used in both macramé and naval work. Whilst this account explains the spread of macramé to Europe and later America, it does not necessarily explain the traditions associated with friendship bracelets.

The modern idea behind a friendship bracelet is that a friend makes two, wears one himself and then gives one to a very close friend. Both friends then wear the bracelets until they fall off, which symbolises the strength of the friendship. Removing the bracelet would be viewed very negatively, as it would show a lack of appreciation for the effort expended by the maker of the bracelets. One theory for the origin of this practice is from Central American tribal traditions, where bracelets would be given between tribe members to symbolise friendship. Whilst jewellery has been an important of Central American Indian culture, there is little in the way of evidence to suggest that this was an early precursor to the modern bracelets of friendship.

Whilst the craft behind friendship bracelets can be relatively well charted, we can only reliably place the introduction of the friendship bracelet in 1960/70's American culture. However the good news is that bracelets are still alive and popular today, and if anything the introduction of the internet has helped popularise friendship bracelets again, as lots of different guides are available online.

History of Friendship Bracelets

Author, 19 years old.

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