The Discovery of Copper

Nobody knows who discovered copper. In Iraq, archaeologists made a discovery of a copper pendant aging over 10,000 years. Unlike other metals, this metal is usually found in its natural state, not in the form of ores or compounds. Thus human believe copper was the first metal being used, probably used with meteoritic iron or gold.

The copper is thought to be a prehistoric metal. Evidence was found that was used by ancient Americans during 1000 B. C. Those days, copper was mainly used in the pure form. The American Indians in the Upper Peninsula of America used copper as the sources for spear tips, trinkets and jewelry.


According to the reference, there were two oldest civilizations that used the copper. They were Chaldea and Sumer. Similar to other founders of copper in other places, they made use copper to produce weapons. Sumerian craftsmen also made beautiful sculptures from copper and mounted them on the wall. One of the examples is the Imdugud Relief. It was dated 3100 B. C. and showed an eagle headed a lion and holding a stag in its claw.

The Discovery of Copper

Others claimed that copper was originally found and used by the Romans in Cyprus for almost 11, 000 years. They were the ones who discovered copper and named it after the island, which had abundance of copper resources. The name copper was originally cuprum, the Latin word named by the Romans. They discovered the many faceted abilities of the copper. The main usage of copper metal was for weaponry including spears, axes, knives and other household items like cutlery and pots.

There were other cultures that were listed to discover copper and using the metal for numerous stuffs. The Middle East was believed to be one of the earliest discoverers of copper. They primarily used copper on large scales to produce copper alloy by combining it with other metals. Among the examples were bronze and brass. The bronze and brass have better properties including being much more durable and more resistance towards damage compared to pure copper metal.

Copper and alloys were also abundantly used in the Far East and Turkey as early as 5000 B. C. The technology used in Asia was pretty similar to the one used in Mediterranean and America. However in the process of mining to smelting, they differ a little.

The prehistoric Hindus had used copper for other products like coins, cutleries, and lamps instead of weapons. There was also discovery of little copper tubes in the burial grounds under Egyptian pyramids.

To conclude this, one can never have precise statements about who discovered copper as nobody has the privileged to be accredited for copper discovery. It was basically found in all corners of the world at different times. Different cultures have interesting evolution of the metal into their respective fields.

The Discovery of Copper

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History Of Law Enforcement

Since the conception of society, law enforcement bodies have existed to protect citizens from criminals or to maintain the status quo and keep leaders in power. Dating back to Biblical times, there were military personnel tasked to maintain peace and order. In Egypt, for example, a pharaoh ruled the land and soldiers chased the Israelites across the Red Sea. There were other societies with military hierarchies as well, like the Babylonian, the Syrian, and the Palestinian societies, among others.

The most prominent of all military organizations was that of the Roman Empire. They had a very effective and brutal form of law enforcement that they utilized to maintain peace and order. It was the Romans who introduced the infamous symbol of the crucifix. The Romans never really had an actual police organization. It was only in the fifth century that clan chiefs and heads of state were tasked to police the people under their care.


London was the first to hire paid enforcers back in 1663. Afterwards, the trend spread across the United Kingdom. It was only in June of 1800, that the authorities of Glasgow, Scotland were able to establish the City of Glasgow Police. They were the first professional police enforcers that practiced preventive policing. In 1829, the Metropolitan Police Act was passed by Parliament. This established the first civil police force and the model used by many countries today, including the United States. Outside of the United Kingdom, the Gibraltar Police was the first police service in 1830. In 1721, Spain formed Mossos d'Esuadra in Catalonia. In 1834, the Toronto Police was founded in Canada. It was one of the first police departments in North America. The first full-time police force in United States was the Boston Police Department in 1839.

History Of Law Enforcement
History Of Law Enforcement

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Shroud of Turin New Evidence - A Breakthrough Discovery

The Shroud of Turin New Evidence reveals some pivotal information about the cloth that held the body of Jesus after he was taken down from the cross.

For many years after the shroud was photographed, scientists have worked hard to get more information on some of the clues left behind. This article will discuss some of the more recent findings found on this sacred cloth.


The Shroud of Jesus has been a topic of debate for many years. Skeptics and believers alike have been trying to further understand this sacred object. Skeptics are trying to get more information to prove that the shroud is a fake, while the believers are trying to get more evidence to prove Jesus' existence.

Shroud of Turin New Evidence - A Breakthrough Discovery

For many it's hard to believe that Jesus, the supposed Son of God, came and lived among us to spread his message of love. Accounts of his life are documented in the New Testament and within the different Gospels. People at the time, witnessed first hand the truth of his existence. Another piece of evidence we can refer to is the Shroud of Turin. When it was first photographed in 1898, a positive image of a man had shown in the negative prints.

Up until this point, scientists were able to discover that this man was not only beaten and tortured, but was crucified as well. Bilirubin was found in his blood to confirm this. This bile pigment only shows up in a person's blood if they suffered a traumatic beating. There were also several marks on his body that matched the patterns of a Roman flagrum. During that time period, this tool was used to inflict punishment on someone.

Scientists were also able to determine that the cloth originated from Jerusalem. They were able to do this because they had tested the shroud for dust and pollen. What they found was that there were 56 different pollens on the cloth, 17 of which were native to Europe and the rest was from Palestine in Southern Turkey. If the cloth was forged then they should have only found pollen samples from both France and Italy, which is where the Savoy family had been. Also, it was written that St. Peter took the Shroud of Turin to Edessa, Turkey. Evidence found on the cloth confirms this story.

There was testing done to determine the exact age by doing C14 Dating Testing. What they found, or claimed they found, was that the cloth was from the period 1260 - 1390 AD. This basically disproved the theory that shroud was from 26 AD which is the time Jesus would have lived. There were problems that were discovered with their findings. C14 Dating has always proven to be off by several thousands of years which is one possible cause. Scientists were able to prove this by testing other samples from different time periods.

The scientists and the religious groups that headed up the investigation and testing seemed to be biased on not believing the shroud was authentic. It seems they did everything to try to sabotage the tests. The person that headed up the supervision of the shroud testing, Dr. Michael Tite, wrote a letter to one of the labs asking for them to find a cloth that was similar to the Shroud of Turin. He denied this accusation until his letter was made public and then he had no choice but to admit to this act. The scientists that performed the testing also violated 14 different scientific protocols.

On a separate study, Dr. Alan Whanger, he was able to see two coins that covered each eye. On further observation, he was able to see the markings of the coins used during the time of Tiberius Caesar, who was the emperor at the time of Christ. This proves that the image was in fact from 29 AD because those coins were only found during that time period. Not only that, it proves that the shroud was in fact from Israel. This was the official time stamp.

The Shroud of Turin New Evidence was discovered by Dame Isabel Piczek, a Particle Physicist. She was able to observe from the image that there was a strange dividing element. From this she created a 3 dimensional object and found that the body was not pressed against the ground and that the image was perfect. This meant that the cloth was stretched out and the body was hovering at the time, the image was created. She went on to mention that most people thought that the shroud represented death, in her opinion the shroud and the tomb represent an unbelievable beginning. She parallels the happenings of what happened in the Universe to the theory of the Big Bang.

The Shroud of Turin New Evidence always seems to be appearing in different studies. Jesus himself did not want to force anyone into believing in him. Through his miracles, it was evidence enough. All that he asked was for people to open their hearts and to have faith.

Shroud of Turin New Evidence - A Breakthrough Discovery

For more information on the Shroud visit Shroud of Turin New Evidence.

Handel Lamp History

Philip Julius Handel first established the Handel Company in Meriden, Connecticut in 1876. They specialized in high quality reverse painted lamp shades and were generally considered a less expensive alternative to the Tiffany lamp popularized by Louis Comfort Tiffany. They also made leaded glass shades similar to Tiffany as well as vases, humidor boxes and other decorative objects. The most popular lamps of the Art Nouveau 1890-1920 and the Art Deco period 1920-1939 were Tiffany, Handel, Pairpoint and Duffner & Kimberly.

Philip Handel (age 19) and Adolph Eydam (age 21) formed a partnership in 1885 and created the "Eydam and Handel Company" in Meriden, Connecticut specializing in glass decorating and lamp manufacturing. They used lamp bases from other suppliers not their own lamp bases. In 1892 the partnership ended and the company later moved to larger facilities in New York city in 1893 and was known as "Philip J. Handel" and later as "Handel and Company". In 1902 they opened their own foundry and began producing their own lamp bases. The Handel Company was incorporated on June 11, 1903 and Philip J. Handel, Albert Parlow, and Antone Teich were the principals. In 1906, Philip J. Handel married Fannie Hirschfield Handel his second wife. She became the company's president upon Philip Handel's death in 1914. In 1918 she remarried and in 1919 William F. Handel, Philip's cousin took control of the company.


Following World War I was a period of tremendous growth. The economy was roaring and the company had assembled a very impressive and talented group of artists and craftsmen. However, the Great Depression drastically changed the company's fortunes and by 1929 the company was struggling. The company ceased production completely in 1936. The Handel Lamp Company was the very finest maker of reverse-painted lamps. Handel also made some leaded glass lamps. The company is a prime example of fine American quality craftsmanship.

Handel Lamp History

Handel bases were most commonly made of a zinc alloy, spelter with a bronze patina or finish. Some were made of genuine bronze. The marking was commonly the company name on the bottom of the base. The markings consisted of raised letters and/or a label. Sometimes the marking would be underneath the base or sometimes on top of the the base. Lamp shades were marked on metal components and/or on the glass itself. Some of the glass pieces are signed by the artists.

Many of the medium to larger Handel lamp bases were wired with multiple sockets which were operated by pull chains that had small and various shaped pull balls on the ends of the chain.

It has long been a common practice to match slag glass lamp shades, Tiffany type shades and others to various lamp bases that were not the original. Another common practice has been to place an unsigned shade on a signed Handel lamp base and pass the entire lamp off as a "Handel". Many if not most lamps and shades are referred to as Handel lamps simply because the style is similar to that of an original Handel lamp. Experts today suggest that about 90% of all lamps called Handel were not actually made by Handel. There are many lamps that are signed but that are not authentic. Identification of Handel leaded lamps is a subjective process that few people are qualified to do.

Given the company's history it may be difficult to prove the negative: i.e. that a particular lamp is NOT a Handel. But as usual, money speaks and you will find that a Handel lamp and shade with correct markings, attributes and documentation commands a very premium price as compared to any lamp that is "attributed to Handel".

For instance, some of Handel's small and simple desk and simple piano lamps have recently sold for around 0. Generally the more complex ones sell for over ,000. There are some rare ones that have sold for over ,000.

Some Handel glass artists are highly regarded and their works bring a premium price. Their signatures can be seen on some Handel lamp shades. Among these Handel artists are Bailey, Bedigie, Broggi, Gubisch, Matzow, Palme, and Parlow and Runge.

Handel Lamp History

Jim Hoyle
Biography: Since 1979 Jim Hoyle has owned and operated Lamp Outlet - North Carolina's Most Unique Table Lamps, Floor Lamps and Antique Lamps - Antique lamps and exclusive new unique table lamps and floor lamps. Contact Jim at

Electronic Discovery - Can Contents of My Electronic Communications Be Used As Evidence in Court?

Online communications: "Meet me online so we can talk privately for all to read."

The use of electronic internet devices such as computers, laptops, cell-phones and smart phones, has led to an explosion of readily available information. The web has become a literal smorgasbord of data - facts galore, sports stats heaven, and the latest teenage nonsense can all be accessed at the touch of a button, or the touch of a screen. The sheer amount of "stuff" can seem at times more like a virus outbreak than an explosion, or like a tidal wave that wipes out the casual web surfer.


Even more accessible than before are our communications. Social networking sites have put the very corners of our private life on blast for all to see and read. The latest posts and status updates let everyone know where we've been, what we ate, what we think about the latest movie, what we're going to wear tomorrow - the list is as endless as our observations of the minutest details of our minute-to-minute existence.

Electronic Discovery - Can Contents of My Electronic Communications Be Used As Evidence in Court?

And our conversations are getting memorialized in the form of comments and instant messages, sometimes allowing random intruders to interject in our sophisticated discussions of the most recent happenings. "Who is this person again?" is not an uncommon question when chatting with an online "friend".

As these internet devices are used more and more for "private" communications, the question begs to be asked, "Can my electronic communications be used as evidence in court against me?" In general, the answer to this is "yes" - this information can be used, subject to various limitations, during what is known as the discovery process of a trial. What follows is a discussion of the basic applications of discovery to electronic information.

What is "The Discovery Process" in General?
In general, evidence gathered during the pre-trial phase of a lawsuit is known as discovery. During the discovery phase, each party is allowed to request documents and other items from the opposing side. Following the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP), these documents and items are entered into the record to be admitted as evidence. If a party is unwilling to produce documents for discovery, the other party may force them to hand over the evidence using discovery devices such as a subpoena.

Usually the objects produced during discovery tend to be documents and records kept on file by a person or a business. Some items are not admissible as evidence. Examples of items that may not be reached during discovery are those protected by the attorney-client privilege, or items that have been illegally seized by warrant.

What is "Electronic Discovery"?
In legal parlance, electronic discovery, or "e-discovery" refers to discovery of Electronically Stored Information. Electronically Stored Information, or "ESI" is an actual legal term adopted by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in 2006. ESI refers to information that is created, stored, and used in digital form, and requires the use of a computer for access. Such information may take the form of documents, e-mails, web site addresses, and digitally stored photographs. ESI is subject to the basic principals that govern the discovery phase. Once admitted as evidence, ESI becomes "electronic evidence".

However, because ESI is a relatively recent phenomenon (legally speaking), and because of its unique nature, there are various rules and statutes that are unique to e-discovery. E-discovery can often be much more demanding than traditional discovery, both time-wise and financially, because of the enormous amount of information that can be stored on a computer.

Which Laws Govern E-Discovery?

Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP)
As mentioned, the basic rules governing e-discovery are the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP). Specifically, Rule 16 was amended in 2006 to include ESI. The greatest contribution of FRCP to the discussion of e-discovery is the term ESI.

The U.S. Constitution: 4th Amendment Search and Seizure rules apply
Under the U.S. Constitution, electronically stored information is subject to the same 4th amendment protections guiding the search and seizure process. Some of these 4th amendment inquires include whether or not the person has a privacy interest in the property, and whether the police obtained a valid search warrant in seizing the property. As we will see, in the realm of e-discovery, obtaining valid search warrant is a central theme of the discussion.

The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (EPCA)
Born out of old-school wiretapping legislation, the EPCA is one of the main legislative Acts affecting e-discovery. This federal statute prohibits third parties from intercepting and using electronic communications without proper authorization. The term "third parties" applies to both government actors and private citizens. "Proper authorization" has been subject to scrutiny, since many websites often contain questionable disclosure agreements. The Act protects communications that are either in storage or in transit.

While the EPCA does secure a good amount of privacy for the electronics user, it has been the target of much criticism. For example, the Act initially did not protect e-mails while they were in transit. However, later cases ruled that this would defeat the entire purpose of the Act, since e-mails are transient at least once in their existence. E-mails are now protected both in storage and in transit.

Another criticism of the Act is that it is not very difficult for government actors to find ways around the "proper authorization" requirement. All that the agent would need to do is state that the information was relevant to issues of national security, i.e., counter-terrorism. Therefore a proper warrant is relatively easy to secure if the agent could justify a seizure of the ESI based on anti-terrorism theories. Also, warrantless seizures are easily justified on such a theory. Many of the concerns with anti-terrorism became more complicated with the passage of the Patriot Act of 2001, which gave government agents even more access to ESI.

Popular Categories of ESI that are Discoverable
Courts have ruled that basically all forms of ESI are discoverable. As stated, in order for ESI to be obtained in discovery, the government actor or private individual must still adhere to discovery rules and search and seizure requirements. Here are some notes to consider regarding the various forms of ESI:

Under the EPCA, e-mails are protected from improper disclosure by third parties both in storage and in transit. The Federal Rules in 2006 specifically named e-mails as ESI and therefore they are discoverable as long as the proper procedures are followed. Two main points in the discovery of e-mails are the temporary nature of e-mails, and the level of specificity required in the warrant or discovery request.

In a 2003 case, Zubulake v. UBS Warburg 217 F.R.D. 309 (S.D.N.Y. 2003), a great deal of effort was expended during the case in trying to prove the existence of certain e-mails. In this case, the e-mails sought were never found, nor was it proven that they were destroyed, and the court ruled that they did likely exist. UBS was sanctioned heavily for not preserving information that might be subject to discovery. The case illustrates how important it is to be timely in the production of ESI, because it is subject to being erased or deleted.

In another 2003 case, Theofel v. Jones-Farley 341 F.3d 978 (2003), a lawyer requesting production of e-mails was sanctioned for not specifying the dates of the e-mails requested (he had requested that all of the company's e-mails be produced). This case demonstrates that in discovery of ESI, a lawyer needs to be very specific as to which e-mails are requested. Courts need to be able to identify which e-mails are relevant to their opinion; if they cannot do so, the discovery request will be denied.

Text Messages, Instant Messages, and Chats
Text messages, Instant Messages (IM), and Chats are all ESI and are treated like e-mails for the purposes of discovery. Therefore they are discoverable. Many users of text and instant message believe that because their messages are executed on a mobile phone, their communications are deleted once sent. However, most service providers keep a record of texts and IM's for anywhere from one to three months after they are sent. Also, after the Zubulake case, companies are much more wary of clearing messages from their database, especially if the message is "potentially discoverable" in a pending case.

Text messages and the like can also present problems with timeliness, as they tend to be deleted from the database even more quickly than e-mails. Also, most texts do not have a title as do e-mails, so they can be cumbersome to sift through for the relevant information. They are still, however, discoverable.

Social Networking Websites
Information posted on sites such as MySpace or Facebook is definitely considered to be ESI and subject to discovery. This means that anything posted by a profile owner that is incriminating could be used against them in court as electronic evidence.

Attorneys now regularly search such networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook to gather information that might be relevant to their cases. This might involve identifying witnesses, or collecting statements that might add testimonial weight to their case. Also, photographs posted online can be used in various ways to establish a case. Therefore profile owners should be wary of posting any information that might be used against them in court.

To date there have been no major corporate legal cases that relied heavily on the production of discovery information from social networks such as Facebook or Twitter. A recent Canadian case, Leduc v. Roman 2009 CanLII 6838 (ON S.C.), held that information posted on websites such as Facebook must be disclosed upon request even if the person has blocked public access to their profile. It probably won't be long before we see some major American cases dealing with the production of evidence from social network sites.

Most legal cases involving social networks and privacy have been the other way around: the website intruded on people's privacy with invasive advertisement. Perhaps the reluctance to involve such information in litigation is that these websites are very new to the scene. Also, most companies agree that e-discovery in a social network setting can be a potential nightmare. As with texts, there are usually no titles in much of the information posted, not to mention the various applications and different features of such sites. Finally, most attorneys would prefer to rely on traditional forms of evidence such as witness testimony, before relying on information from networking sites.

More recently, the Philadelphia State Bar Association has published an opinion regarding attorneys' use of third parties to obtain information from social networks. The opinion stated that an attorney should not use a third party in order to gain access to a person's profile, for example, by asking someone else to make a friend request in order to remain anonymous. Although information on social network sites is discoverable, attorneys and state officials must still abide by rules of ethics and professional conduct.

A Final Note: Creative Lawyering and E-Discovery
Finally, remember that it is not always the content of electronically stored information that can be incriminating. ESI can be used in many creative ways. The information might be used to prove a required element of a crime, such as the person's mental state, or a person's location in a particular place. For example, if a suspect's alibi might be questioned if a computer log shows that they were actively online at a different place. Creative lawyering means that a lawyer will use any information to prove their case, and they might do so in ways not commonly imagined.

So, it is to your benefit that you be aware of the possibility of electronic information being used as evidence. Obviously, posting incriminating evidence is unwise, but bear in mind that information can be used in a variety of ways. Even seemingly harmless conversations can be used to prove guilt in a court of law. And statements that other people post on a user's profile are also fair game. It is nearly impossible not to be involved with ESI in some way or another, but a little common sense can go a long way.

Electronic Discovery - Can Contents of My Electronic Communications Be Used As Evidence in Court?

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